Paragraph 3.5 - Discrimination and genocide - 2021
What do you know about the Holocaust?
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Slide 1: Woordweb
GeschiedenisMiddelbare schoolvwoLeerjaar 3
In deze les zitten 42 slides, met interactieve quiz, tekstslides en 5 videos.
Lesduur is: 40 min
Onderdelen in deze les
What do you know about the Holocaust?
Slide 1 - Woordweb
Slide 2 - Tekstslide
Slide 3 - Tekstslide
Ten stages of genocide
In these lessons I want to go through the ten stages leading to genocide as defined by George Stanton (2012)
The stages are not linear, and usually several occur simultaneously
The stages are meant to use for analysing and even prevent genocide
We will use the stages to analyse the Shoah, the genocide on the Jews during World War II
Slide 4 - Tekstslide
Jewish population as 'The Other'
Arierverklaring (declaration of Arian ancestry)
Jewish teacher and civil servants were fired
Professor Rudolph Cleveringa of the University of Leiden protested against the firing of his Jewish colleagues by giving speech. The university was was closed by the Nazi's. De universiteit werd door de Duitsers gesloten.
Slide 5 - Tekstslide
Slide 6 - Video
From May 1942 Jews were obligated to wear the star of David
6 years and older, and you had to buy them yourselves
Visible who is Jewish (shaming)
Exclusion of Jews becomes easier
Slide 7 - Tekstslide
Slide 8 - Tekstslide
Slide 9 - Tekstslide
Everyone with one or more Jewish grandparent was considered a Jew, even if you didn't practice the Jewish faith
Freedom withheld due to laws that exclude you from the general body of citizenry
Slide 10 - Tekstslide
Slide 11 - Tekstslide
Slide 12 - Tekstslide
One group denies the humanity of the other group
Members of 'the Other' are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases
Slide 13 - Tekstslide
Slide 14 - Tekstslide
Slide 15 - Tekstslide
Slide 16 - Video
Action T4 and 14f13
July 1933: sterilisation of people with hereditary diseases
September 1939: euthanasia on the incurably sick and mentally ill
January 1940: gass was first used to kill the unwanted ill
August 1941: the men of the Februari razzia were among the first Jews to be killed with gass before the program ended in September and all personal of the facility eventually were offered (and accepted) jobs in one of the many concentrationcamps
Slide 17 - Tekstslide
Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, often using militias to provide deniability of state responsibility
Arresting Jews was prepared, organised and executed by the Germans and Dutch police, the Dutch railways (NS) etc.
Also help from Dutch civilians (money for betrayal) and the WA (militia of the NSB). This, and all help given freely to the Germans to aid them oppressing and caring out their policy without force behind it is called: collaboration
Slide 18 - Tekstslide
Slide 19 - Tekstslide
Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda. Motivations for targeting a group are indoctrinated through mass media
September 1941: Jewish children had to go to Jewish schools, Jews were banned from public places etc. etc.
Slide 20 - Tekstslide
Plans are made for genocidal killings
Jews were forced to live in a ghetto: separate from non-Jews
Jews from all over the Netherlands were taken to Amsterdam to the ghetto
From the list names were selected for deportation to Westerbork. But first they were imprisoned the Hollandse Schouwburg (near Artis)
Slide 21 - Tekstslide
Slide 22 - Tekstslide
Slide 23 - Tekstslide
Slide 24 - Tekstslide
Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. Death lists are drawn up. In state sponsored genocide, members of victim groups may be forced to wear identifying symbols. Their property is often expropriated. Sometimes they are even segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved. They are deliberately deprived of resources such as water or food in order to slowly destroy them.
Genocide aims to destroy an entire population
Also children, disabled persons and elderly were victims
Slide 25 - Tekstslide
Slide 26 - Tekstslide
Slide 27 - Video
Slide 28 - Tekstslide
Quickly the mass killing becomes legally called “genocide.” It is “extermination” to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human.
All previous led to murder
In July 1942 the murder on (Dutch) Jews starts in concentration- and deathcamps
After arrival most of the 140.000 Jews were instantly gassed. Other were forced to work until death.
Warning! following pictures might be shocking!
Slide 29 - Tekstslide
Slide 30 - Tekstslide
Slide 31 - Tekstslide
Slide 32 - Video
To this day there are people who deny the Holocaust (= forbidden by law).
During/after the war the perpetrators tried to cover their tracks. Fled to Argentinia
Many survivors therefore see it as their duty to tell their story
In addition, every diary, document and photo is evidence of the existence of the Holocaust. Education is key
Slide 33 - Tekstslide
Slide 34 - Tekstslide
Slide 35 - Tekstslide
Slide 36 - Tekstslide
Slide 37 - Tekstslide
Slide 38 - Tekstslide
Slide 39 - Tekstslide
Slide 40 - Tekstslide
Of the approximately 140,000 Jews in the Netherlands, 107,000 were deported
Only 5,200 returned alive: meaning that about 95 percent of them did not survive the Holocaust.
About 75% of the Jews living in Amsterdam did not survive the Holocaust.
The Netherlands have the highest number of Jewish victims in Europe.