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4.3 Climate change

4.3 Climate change
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
AardrijkskundeMiddelbare schoolhavo, vwoLeerjaar 3

In deze les zitten 20 slides, met tekstslides en 3 videos.

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4.3 Climate change

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Learning objectives
After studying this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe natural and human reasons of climate change;
  • State the most important greenhouse gases.

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

The Earth’s temperature record
  • Since 1850 thermometers are used to keep a detailed record of temperatures, using standardised procedures.
  • Estimates up to 2,000 years ago: Climate scientists now use tree rings for land temperatures and coral growth rates for seawater temperatures.
  • Scientists analyse air bubbles trapped in ice cores on Antarctica and Greenland.
  • All pointed to a similar conclusion: the global climate has been changing since the formation of the Earth and warm periods have been interspersed with ice ages.

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Figure 4.17 The global temperature record of the past 800,000 years compared to the current average temperature. The right side is the present day.

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Holocene
The current geological epoch, the Holocene, is a relatively warm period with a stable climate. Scientists say the Holocene started a little over 10,000 years ago.

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Slide 7 - Video

Talking point: The Earth’s climate has always been changing. Should we be concerned about recent changes?

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) = the international organisation which investigates climate change.

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Natural reasons for 
changing climates

  • Volcanic eruptions > large ash clouds > less solar radiation > lower temperatures on a very short timescale.
  • Incoming solar radiation (insolation) > the sun doesn't emit the same amount of solar radiation on a longer timescale.
  • Shifting tectonic plates on a very long timescale.

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Human interference
  • IPCC concluded in its most recent report that “it is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-twentieth century.”
  • Effects: Before 2100, the global temperature will be at least 1.5°C higher than in 1900. This will lead to more extreme weather events such as heat waves, floods and droughts (paragraph 4.4).

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

The natural greenhouse effect (left) and human enhanced greenhouse effect (right).

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Slide 13 - Video

The (enhanced) greenhouse effect
Since the industrialisation of the 1850s, people have used a considerable amount of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) to run factories, cars and other machines > more CO2 in the atmosphere > enhanced greenhouse effect.

Biggest contributers per economic sector:
  1. Energy sector (burning coal, oil and gas)
  2. Agriculture (due to cultivation of crops and livestock) and slash and burn deforestation.


Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Carbon cycle
= Model of stores and transfers of carbon throughout the Earth’s system.

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Slide 16 - Video

Carbon capture and storage?
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology = capture the carbon from, for example, electricity plants and store it in underground layers.
  • Positive aspects: Prevent CO2 from human activity entering the atmosphere and use the CO2 in greenhouses to make crops grow faster.
  • Negative aspects: Expensive & difficult to find a suitable location.

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

Climate change is a natural process driven by, for example, volcanic eruptions, solar activity and tectonic plate movements. However, current observations suggest that human activity can also change the climate. Particularly significant is the output of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Since 1850, through the use of fossil fuels in the Western world, greenhouse gas output has been linked to changing climatic conditions worldwide.

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Essence
Climate change is a natural process driven by, for example, volcanic eruptions, solar activity and tectonic plate movements. However, current observations suggest that human activity can also change the climate. Particularly significant is the output of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Since 1850, through the use of fossil fuels in the Western world, greenhouse gas output has been linked to changing climatic conditions worldwide.

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

Homework 3VT
Friday 11 June, 3rd hour:
  • Study 4.3 (textbook + LessonUp)
  • Read 4.3 and do ex. 3, 5 and 7
  • Work on your documentary

Slide 20 - Tekstslide