cross

Illegal Fishing Lesson 3 (Secondary)

ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED & UNREGULATED (IUU) FISHING - LESSON 3
1 / 35
volgende
Slide 1: Tekstslide
Social StudiesMathematics+47-9 Grade9-11 Grade

In deze les zitten 35 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 1 video.

time-iconLesduur is: 45 min

Introductie

Overfishing is emptying the ocean, with 90% of fisheries already overfished. Illegal fishing is increasing this. In this lesson we will look at some of the fishing practices being used and the impacts on the ocean and marine wildlife, and some methods used to stop by-catch.

Instructies

During this lesson we will further explore IUU fishing activity, by looking at some of the fishing methods being used and discuss their impacts.

Time: 45 minutes

Contact: education@seashepherdglobal.org
© Sea Shepherd 2021

Onderdelen in deze les

ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED & UNREGULATED (IUU) FISHING - LESSON 3

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

This lesson is provided by Sea Shepherd.  Sea Shepherd was founded in 1977 and is a marine conservation organisation working to protect the oceans and marine wildlife.  Sea Shepherd works globally on a range of issues impacting the oceans, running numerous direct action campaigns each year.  IUU is one area Sea Shepherd is working on to help stop illegal fishing and reduce by-catch.
What you already know...
You are going to learn...
Action required!

Evaluate your knowledge

Click on the image

Watch  the video

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

During the lesson we will use these icons to identify the learning actions.
By-catch, fishing methods and their impacts.
By-catch, fishing methods and their impacts.

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

During this lesson we will further explore IUU fishing activity, by looking at some of the fishing methods being used and discuss their impacts.
By 2050 the ocean will be empty
By 2050 the ocean will be empty

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Overfishing
This slide shows an emptying ocean.  Explain to students that scientists estimate that by 2050 the ocean ecosystem will be on the verge of collapse, empty of fish and marine wildlife, unless urgent action is taken on the issues impacting on the oceans and marine wildlife.

INTERACTIVE JOIN – ask students to go to www.LessonUp.app

Last Lesson
  • Detecting IUU.
  • AIS & Satellite.
  • Patrols.
  • Regional cooperation.
  • Protecting Marine life.
  • Laws and regulations.
  • Marine reserves.



LAST LESSON

Detecting IUU.
AIS & Satellite.
Patrols.
Regional cooperation.
Protecting Marine life.
Laws and regulations.
Marine reserves.

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Previous lesson summary
During the previous lesson we talked about some of the practices being used to protect the ocean and ways that law enforcement are detecting illegal fishing activity.

Now we are going to look at some of the implications of how fishing is taking place, both by legal and illegal fishing operations that are contributing to overfishing.

26% of Global Fishing Catch is By-Catch.
By-catch is anything caught in nets or on lines that fishermen don't want or are not allowed to legally sell.


BY-CATCH

26% of Global Fishing Catch is By-Catch.

By-catch is anything caught in nets or on lines that fishermen don't want or are not allowed to legally sell.

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

By-catch
It is estimated that around 26% of the global fishing catch is by-catch.

By-catch is basically anything that is caught in fishing nets or on lines, that the fishermen don’t want or are not allowed to legally sell.

Generally they remove the by-catch from the nets and return it to the ocean.  However many of these animals will have already died before they are freed. By-catch could be other species of fish, turtles, dolphins, sharks or even whales.

Why does by-catch happen?
Scale of industrial fishing.
Why does by-catch happen?
Scale of industrial fishing.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Why does by-catch occur?
The nets used for commercial fishing are so large that they capture everything in their wake and are down for long periods of time.  So while the fishermen may be targeting large schools of a particular fish species they will catch everything else in the area at that time. It is simply a by-product of bigger catches, which means more money in less time.

BY-CATCH
Every  year over
300,000 Whales and dolphins
and
250,000 loggerhead and
leatherback sea turtles
die as a result of
commercial fishing operations.


BY-CATCH

Every  year over
300,000 Whales and dolphins
and
250,000 loggerhead and
leatherback sea turtles
die as a result of
commercial fishing operations.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Toll on marine wildlife
Commercial fishing operations for example are responsible for killing some 300,000 dolphins and whales as by-catch each year and 250,000+ loggerhead and leatherback turtles.

PURSE SEINE FISHING
Each country that borders the ocean has territorial waters, referred to as an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). 

Within the EEZ countries can establish marine sanctuaries providing protection in ecologically vital areas,


Purse seine fishing.

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Purse Seine Fishing
The purse seine tuna fishing industry has for many years had an issue with high by-catch levels. For example yellowfin tuna will school with adult skipjack, meaning both will be caught in their nets. The survival of the tuna relies on fishermen processing and removing the unwanted tuna species from the nets.  From the earlier lesson we discussed the issue of unreported fishing catches.  By-catch is one area that is often underreported.

Slide 10 - Video

Intentional by-catch
One practice that the commercial fishing industry has been caught doing is intentionally trapping whales or whale sharks, knowing that other fish are feeding along side them.

Gabon is one country that outlaws this practice.

Show the video (3.00mins) from Sea Shepherd’s Operation Albacore which shows some examples of the marine wildlife in Gabon and the issue of by-catch.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cnm-T0GiuSY&list=PLx1pnhQVtbbBnH1BBXzQtknEROG73UNO9&index=3

By-catch found to be
3 to 4 times more than actually reported.
Regional fisheries management organisations (RFMO) are international bodies that help to regulate fishing. 

Cooperation between different countries on the management of some highly migratory species is important.
By-catch found to be
3 to 4 times more than actually reported.

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Sea Shepherd campaign experience
By-catch is a huge issue and is often under reported by legal fishing operations.  During Sea Shepherd patrols in Gabon vessels have been found to have under reported their by-catch by 3 to 4 times what they have recorded in their logs, which means they could be recording only one in four fish caught as by-catch.

By-catch isn’t just marine wildlife it can also be sea birds that are caught in long lines.

Protecting marine life
Turtle Exclusion Devices(TED)

Measures to deter sea birds:
  • Streamers.
  • Setting lines at night.

PROTECTING MARINE WILDLIFE

Turtle Exclusion Devices(TED)

Measures to deter
sea birds:

    Streamers.
    Setting lines at night.

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Protecting marine wildlife
To help tackle the issue of by-catch a number of practices have been developed and if properly used can help save the lives of marine wildlife.  These include:

Monitoring catch and releasing
Many countries require fishing operators to have crew that specifically spot for whales, dolphins, turtles and remove them from nets before they die.

Turtle Excluder Device (TED)
TED’s are grates attached to the mouths of shrimp trawl nets that keep sea turtles and other marine wildlife out of the nets.  It is a requirement for some industries that these must be fitted.    


Fishing practices to deter marine birds
Many sea birds have been impacted by the growth of the long-liner fishing industry, where lines with hundreds of hooks are put out from the backs of fishing vessels. The birds are snared as they chase the baited hooks.  With hundreds of sea birds dying action was required.

The Agreement on Conservation of Albatross and Petrels (ACAP) was established to coordinate international activity to reduce the threats to the populations of species at risk, such as albatrosses and petrels.

The Agreement has been signed by 13 countries, and covers 31 species of marine birds.  

ACAP aims to reduce the impacts of fishing on seabirds and changing fishing practices.  This has included:
•    Reducing the time the baited hooks are available to birds to target before they sink into the water,
•    Using methods to deter birds coming close, such as streamers, and
•    Setting lines at night time, when birds are not around.
While this has reduced the threat to sea birds it does not eliminate the risk completely.

Other methods
Other ways to reduce by-catch include the types of hooks used on long lines and the bait used.

Purse seine fishing & dolphins.
Purse seine fishing & dolphins.

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Case Study – Purse Seine Fishing & Dolphins
Ever noticed on tins of tuna the words ‘dolphin friendly’ or ‘dolphin safe’?  

These terms make you think that the tuna fishing industry is not harming dolphins or other marine wildlife, but that may not be the case. These terms were only introduced after it became public knowledge that the tuna fishing industry was causing the deaths of pods of dolphins that were also being trapped in tuna nets.

This practice was uncovered in March: 1988 when a Sea Shepherd agent documented the killing of dolphins by a United States tuna seiner named the Sea King. Sea Shepherd gave the use of this footage to Sam LaBudde of Earth Island Institute.

This footage, in addition to the film taken by Sam LaBudde on board a Panamanian tuna seiner, was shown to the world and it caused a huge uproar over the tuna industry. It helped to contribute to the ban on dolphin killing by U.S. tuna companies.



In 1990 the US Department of Commerce introduced the tuna safe label, it is meant to indicate compliance with policies to minimise dolphin deaths.

Over the years since this incident Sea Shepherd vessels have documented many more occurrences of dolphins and other species being trapped in tuna nets.

While much of this was happening in the East Tropical Pacific area, it is not the only place and these days the by-catch is not just limited to dolphins. Dolphin safe standards do not cover sea turtles, sharks and other by-catch.

Scale of fishing industry.
Scale of fishing industry.

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Scale of industrial fishing
The increasing demand for fish and a desire to make it cost effective saw the development of large scale industrial fishing vessels during the mid 1900’s. The vessels and nets were developed to dramatically increase the size of the fishing catch.

Increasing size of fishing nets.
Increasing size of fishing nets.

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Size of nets
This resulted in large increases in the size of the nets being used and changes to the size of the mesh in the nets.  Over the years the mesh size has decreased allowing smaller sized fish to be caught. Fish that could once swim through a net, like younger fish, are now being caught in the massive nets.

Why do you think
the catch is less, despite
the fleet doubling in size?

Slide 16 - Woordweb

Since 1950’s the commercial fishing fleet has doubled, but is catching less.  

Ask students answer via www.LessonUp.app or discuss in classroom:

“Why do you think the catch is less, despite fishing fleets doubling in size?”

TYPES OF FISHING
DRIFTNETS
Driftnet refers to the setting of nets along the top of the ocean. 

A driftnet hangs vertically in the water attached to ropes along the ocean surface with buoys and weights along the bottom.

Target pelagic fish that live in open ocean.

TYPES OF FISHING
DRIFTNETS

Driftnet refers to the setting of nets along the top of the ocean.

A driftnet hangs vertically in the water attached to ropes along the ocean surface with buoys and weights along the bottom.

Target pelagic fish that live in open ocean.

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

Types of fishing - Driftnets
There are numerous types of fishing styles and gear that are used to catch different species.

Driftnet refers to the setting of nets along the top of the ocean.  A driftnet is not anchored to the ocean floor, instead it hangs vertically in the water attached to ropes along the ocean surface with buoys and weights along the bottom. These nets are used to target pelagic fish, which simply means fish that are not in coastal waters, reefs or on the sea-bed. They live in open ocean and can be several kilometres under the surface.

Illegal poachers are often caught using illegal driftnets. In December 1991 the United Nations General Assembly approved a resolution banning the use of driftnets longer than 2.5kms in international waters, commencing from 1993.  Yet over 25 years after the resolution poachers are still using driftnets. These types of nets are very destructive as they trap everything in their path.

The Sea Shepherd Case Study – Operation Driftnet provides further information on this type of fishing.

TYPES OF FISHING
GILLNETS
Gillnets are walls of netting set in a straight line, using floats on the surface the length of the lines can be adjusted to set the nets at varying depths.

They are usually set several kilometres below the surface and can be many kilometres long.  They are used for deep living fish like toothfish. 


TYPES OF FISHING
GILLNETS

Gillnets are walls of netting set in a straight line, using floats on the surface the length of the lines can be adjusted to set the nets at varying depths.

They are usually set several kilometres below the surface and can be many kilometres long.  They are used for deep living fish like toothfish.

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Types of fishing - Gillnets
Gillnets are walls of netting set in a straight line that are very effective at trapping fish. Using floats on the surface the length of the lines can be adjusted to set the nets at varying depths. They are usually set several kilometres below the surface and can be many kilometres long.  They are used for deep living fish like toothfish.  Laws on gillnets vary between countries.

The use of gillnets goes back several centuries.  The traditional versions were made of organic materials, such as hemp, current nets are made from plastics and can float in the oceans for many years to come trapping unsuspecting marine wildlife.  These earlier nets also had a much larger mesh that would allow younger fish to escape, allowing them time to grow and breed. Earlier cultures, which relied on fish, knew that to protect future fish numbers they had to take the more mature fish and only what they needed to survive.

The Sea Shepherd Case Study – Operation Icefish provides further information on this type of fishing.

TYPES OF FISHING
LONG LINES
Long lines are fishing lines that can run for up to 100 km with thousands of baited barbed hooks.

Pelagic long line consists of a main fishing line line, with shorter lines attached containing the hooks.




TYPES OF FISHING
LONG LINES


Long lines are fishing lines that can run for up to 100 km with thousands of baited barbed hooks.

Pelagic long line consists of a main fishing line line, with shorter lines attached containing the hooks.

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

Types of fishing – Long line fishing
Long lines are fishing lines that can run for up to 100 km with thousands of baited barbed hooks. They will catch everything that tries to go for the bait or any fish caught on the hooks, this includes sharks, seals or turtles.
 
These lines are also dangerous to sea birds, who will try to dive and take the bait from the hooks or the fish caught on them. There are two types of long lines, both consist of a main fishing line from which shorter lines containing hooks:
➢    Pelagic long line uses normal fishing line for the main line.
➢    Cable long line uses a heavy wire line for the main line.

TYPES OF FISHING
TRAWLING
Bottom trawling - This means the fishermen are dragging the nets along the seafloor scraping up everything in their path. 


TYPES OF FISHING
TRAWLING

Bottom trawling - This means the fishermen are dragging the nets along the seafloor scraping up everything in their path.

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

Types of fishing - Trawling
There are two main types of trawling, the main one being bottom trawling.

Bottom trawling - This means the fishermen are dragging the nets along the seafloor scraping up everything in their path.  This method brings up with them all life and the habitat, this includes corals and sponges along with the fish, jellyfish, starfish and anything else in their path.  Any fish of reasonable size is sold separately the rest is called ‘trash fish’ and is sent to be turned into fishmeal which can be used for food in fish farms, like prawn farms.  Bottom trawling is very destructive, wiping out habitat and ecosystem all in one go.

TYPES OF FISHING
BLAST FISHING
This is where the poachers use explosives (dynamite) to bomb around reefs to stun the fish and then they dive to collect the fish.


TYPES OF FISHING
BLAST FISHING


This is where the poachers use explosives (dynamite) to bomb around reefs to stun the fish and then they dive to collect the fish.

Slide 21 - Tekstslide

Types of fishing – Blast fishing
This is where the poachers use explosives (dynamite) to bomb around reefs to stun the fish and then they dive to collect the fish. Using this method also destroys the reef itself by killing corals.  This method is illegal, but has been used in places like Tanzania and Indonesia.  

TYPES OF FISHING
POISONING
Sodium cyanide or bleach is used to kill or stun the fish, mainly by individual poachers who dive on reef systems.


TYPES OF FISHING
POISONING


Sodium cyanide or bleach is used to kill or stun the fish, mainly by individual poachers who dive on reef systems.

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

Types of fishing - Poisoning
Sodium cyanide or bleach is used to kill or stun the fish, mainly by individual poachers who dive on reef systems. This highly toxic chemical is mixed up in a bottle, which is then used to squirt the chemical in the area of a reef that the poachers intend to stun the fish. The chemical coats the reef and any other fish near by.  Too high a dose and it will kill the fish.  This method is mainly used around tropical coral reefs to stun and capture tropical fish for aquariums.

TYPES OF FISHING
FISH AGGREGATING DEVICES (FAD)

These devices are designed to lure fish into an area to make it easier to find and catch fish.  The device can attract multiple species of pelagic fish.  

Small fish use the floating debris to hide from larger fish in the open ocean. Larger fish know this so visit the debris in search of an easy meal.



TYPES OF FISHING
FISH AGGREGATING DEVICES (FAD)


These devices are designed to lure fish into an area to make it easier to find and catch fish.  The device can attract multiple species of pelagic fish.  

Small fish use the floating debris to hide from larger fish in the open ocean. Larger fish know this so visit the debris in search of an easy meal.

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

Types of fishing – Fish Aggregating Devices (FAD)
These devices are designed to lure fish into an area to make it easier to find and catch fish.  The device can attract multiple species of pelagic fish.  

Small fish use the floating debris to hide from larger fish in the open ocean. Larger fish are also attracted and visit the debris in search of an easy meal.

There is no regulatory system in place to monitor the deployment and tracking of these devices.  These are used widely in the tuna fishing industry. They usually consist of a buoy or floats attached to the device, which is tethered to the ocean floor to keep it in one location.

Abandoned, Lost and Discarded fishing gear.
Abandoned, Lost and Discarded fishing gear.

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

Abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear
Abandoned, lost and dumped fishing nets, both from legal and illegal fishing vessels, can become ghost nets.  Floating walls of death that have a huge impact on marine wildlife.

Plastic Ghostnets.
Floating walls of death.
Plastic Ghostnets - Floating walls of death.

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

Plastic ghost nets
Ghost nets are made from plastics, which can float in the oceans for many years trapping any marine wildlife that come in contact with them.  Some nets are made from materials that make them hard to detect underwater, which is why they are effective fishing tools, but as ghost nets they just become death traps for anything and everything.
For more information on this topic see the lesson Abandoned, Lost and Dumped Fishing Gear.

CASE STUDY
NORTH ATLANTIC
Fleet of 50 ships

Each ship lost up to 30km of net every 2 month fishing trip.

Every 2 months = 1,500 kms
of net lost.

750 tonnes of plastic pollution.

CASE STUDY
NORTH ATLANTIC


Fleet of 50 ships
Each ship lost up to 30km of net every 2 month fishing trip.

Every 2 months = 1,500 kms
of net lost.

750 tonnes of plastic pollution.

Slide 26 - Tekstslide

Case study – dumped fishing gear
During the 1990’s a fleet of 50 ships fished the North Atlantic for deep sea sharks, so they could produce shark liver oil. Ships would have between 6,000-9,000km (3,728-5,592 miles) of gillnet in the water at a time.

On average each ship would lose up to 30km (18.6 miles) of gillnet every trip.  Each vessel would head out for up to 2 months at a time.  This means the fleet of 50 vessels were losing up to 1,500km (932 miles) of gillnet every two months, which equals 750 tonnes of plastic pollution.

These fishing activities were so intense and effective they reduced deep sea sharks in the North Atlantic to 20% of the numbers prior to this fleet operating.


What were three fishing methods that
cause damage to reef systems?

Slide 27 - Open vraag

Ask students to answer via www.LessonUp.app or discuss in classroom.

“What were 3 fishing methods that cause damage to reef systems?”



Name three ways that by-catch can be reduced?

Slide 28 - Open vraag

Ask students to answer via www.LessonUp.app or discuss in classroom.

“Name 3 ways that by-catch can be reduced?”

HOW CAN YOU HELP?
What ways do you think you can help protect marine life from IUU activity and becoming by-catch?



HOW CAN YOU HELP?

What ways do you think you can help protect marine wildlife from IUU activity and becoming by-catch?



Slide 29 - Tekstslide

How can you help protect marine wildlife?
We have discussed this in previous lessons, but having studied the three lessons ask students to list ways they can help tackle the issues of overfishing, IUU activity and by-catch.

WAYS YOU CAN HELP
Help reduce the demand for fish, which will reduce overfishing.

Help stop the use of products, such as shark fins, krill and fish oil tablets, fish in pet food.

Train to become a diver and help to remove ghost nets.

WAYS YOU CAN HELP

Help reduce the demand for fish, which will reduce overfishing.

Help stop the use of products, such as shark fins, krill and fish oil tablets, fish in pet food.

Train to become a diver and help to remove ghost nets.

Slide 30 - Tekstslide

How can protect marine wildlife?
Some ideas might be:
•    Help reduce demand for fish, which will reduce overfishing.
•    Stop using fish products – shark fins, krill, pet foods.
•    Train to dive and help remove ghost nets.



Write down three things you have learned?

Slide 31 - Open vraag

What did you learn?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Write down three things you have learned?”



Write down one thing you didn't understand?

Slide 32 - Open vraag

What don’t you understand?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Write down one thing you didn’t understand?”

By 2050 the oceans will collapse if we don't act.
90% of global fisheries are overfished.

30% of global commercial fishing catch is taken illegally

26% of global catch is by-catch






KEY FACTS

By 2050 the oceans will collapse if we don't act.

90% of global fisheries are overfished.

30% of global commercial fishing catch is taken illegally

26% of global catch is by-catch

Slide 33 - Tekstslide

Summary of key facts
90% of the global fisheries have been overfished.

30% of global commercial fishing catch is taken illegally.

26% of catch is by-catch.

By 2050 the ocean ecosystem will collapse if we don’t stop overfishing.

Everyone can help make this happen by reducing the demand for fish and more wisely using the fish that is caught.

Slide 34 - Tekstslide

Case Studies
Sea Shepherd Case Studies cover a number of Sea Shepherd campaigns and show video of some of our work to stop IUU fishing activity, working with law enforcement officials around the world.  These can be used to enhance the learning experience from these lessons.

www.seashepherdglobal.org

Slide 35 - Tekstslide

Deze slide heeft geen instructies