Protocols and Standards

Protocols and Standards
Year 12 
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
ComputingFurther Education (Key Stage 5)

In deze les zitten 40 slides, met interactieve quizzen en tekstslides.

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Protocols and Standards
Year 12 

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Recap: What is a Network?

Slide 2 - Open vraag

What did we learn last week?

Slide 3 - Woordweb

KO: To be-able to identify how protocols and standards are used in Computing.
  • To be-able to identify the different protocols used in Computing.
  • To be-able to identify the different standards which are used in Computing.

  • To be-able to explain what the different protocols and standards do.

  • Know how and where the protocols and standards are used in Computing.
  • Know how the protocols and standards link to the Network Stack.

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

What do you think a protocol is?

Slide 5 - Open vraag

Can you list the protocols that you think you know?

Slide 6 - Woordweb

What is a 'Protocol'?
In computer science, a protocol refers to a set of rules and procedures that govern how data is transmitted and received over a network.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

TCP/IP Model
What is the TCP/IP model?

  • The TCP/IP model, also known as the Internet protocol suite, is a conceptual model used for communication over the Internet and other computer networks.

  • It consists of four layers, and each layer performs a specific set of functions. It is protocol layering. And a simplified version of the OSI model.

  • Each layer provides specific services to the layer above it.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

The TCP/IP Model

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Group Task - TCP/IP Model
In groups of 3, I want you to go and do some research on the 4 different layers of the TCP/IP model. Then we are going to discuss them with each other.

What are these?
What is each layers role?
Look at the diagrams associated with each layer and explain them.

Application Layer,  Transport Layer,  Internet Layer & Link Layer. 

15 minutes.

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Application Layer 
  • HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) & HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)
  • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
  • POP (Post Office Protocol)
  • IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

  • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) are protocols that are used to transfer data over the internet. Between web servers, web clients & web browsers. It is the foundation of data communication on the World Wide Web.

  • Works with DNS

  • HTTP is the standard protocol used for transferring data over the internet, while HTTPS is a more secure version of HTTP that encrypts data to protect it from interception and theft.

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
  • SMTP is a protocol used for sending email messages over the Internet. SMTP is a client-server based protocol.

  • SMTP is 'Push'.

  • When you send an email message, your email client (such as Gmail or Outlook) communicates with an SMTP server to transfer the message to the recipient's email server. The SMTP server is responsible for ensuring that the message is properly formatted and transmitted to the correct destination.

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
  •  It is a standard network protocol used for transferring files between a client and a server over the Internet. FTP is typically used for transferring large files, such as software updates or multimedia files.

  • FTP protocol allows a user to connect to an FTP server using an FTP client, which is software that runs on the user's computer.

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

SSL (Secure Socket Layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security)
  • SSL and TLS are cryptographic protocols used to provide secure communication over the Internet. 

  • SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer, and TLS stands for Transport Layer Security. Both protocols are designed to provide a secure channel between two communicating applications, such as a web server and a web browser.

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

How do we know if a website is using SSL or TLS?

Slide 16 - Open vraag

POP (Post Office Protocol)
  • It is one of the most widely used protocols for email retrieval. POP works by downloading email messages from a mail server onto a client device, such as a computer or smartphone, and then deleting them from the server. But you can configure it not to do this.

  • When you configure an email client to use POP, it will typically connect to the mail server periodically and download any new email messages that have arrived since the last connection. 

  • POP2, POP3, POP4

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)
  • With IMAP, email messages are stored on a mail server and can be accessed and manipulated from multiple email clients, such as webmail interfaces or desktop email applications. This means that users can check their email from different devices and always have access to their entire email history, including sent messages and drafts.

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

What is the difference between POP and IMAP?

Slide 19 - Open vraag

DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol0
  •  DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) operates at the Application layer. Specifically, DHCP is a network protocol that is used to dynamically assign IP addresses and other network configuration parameters (such as subnet masks, default gateways, and DNS servers) to network device.

  • This works closely with TCP.

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

What does the 'S' in HTTPS stand for?

Slide 21 - Quizvraag

List all the protocols that we have gone through in the application layer

Slide 22 - Woordweb

Transport Layer
  • UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
  • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
  • TCP is a connection-oriented protocol, which means that it establishes a dedicated end-to-end connection between two devices before transmitting data. This ensures that data is transmitted reliably and in the correct order.

  • TCP is often used for applications that require reliable and ordered transmission of data, such as file transfer, email, and web browsing, online gaming and streaming. 

  • Bluetooth uses TCP.

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

What is the primary role of TCP?
Ensuring reliable delivery of data
Routing data across networks
Providing encryption for data
Managing network congestion

Slide 25 - Quizvraag

Internet Layer
  • IP - Internet Protocol
  • IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol
  • ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol

Slide 26 - Tekstslide

IP - Internet Protocol
  • It is a set of rules or protocols that govern how data is transmitted over the internet. IP is responsible for routing data packets between devices and networks, ensuring that the data reaches its intended destination.

  • IPV4 - 32 Bit Addresses 

  • IPV6 - 128 Bit Addresses

Slide 27 - Tekstslide

Link Layer
ARP - Address Resolution Protocol
DSL - Digital Subscriber Line
ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network
OSPF - Open Shortest Path First 

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

  • Ethernet protocol refers to the set of rules and standards that define how data is transmitted over an Ethernet network. The Ethernet protocol is designed to enable communication between devices on a local area network (LAN).

  • Ethernet protocol also includes the Media Access Control (MAC) protocol, which defines how devices on the network share the available bandwidth and access the network.

Slide 29 - Tekstslide

What does DHCP stand for?
Dynamic Host Control Protocol
Diverse Host Control Protocol
Dynamic High Control Protocol
Dimensional Hosting Control Protocol

Slide 30 - Quizvraag

What do you think 'Standards' are in Computing?

Slide 31 - Open vraag

What are standards?
Standards in computing hardware are established specifications and guidelines that ensure compatibility and interoperability between different components and devices.

You could say that the different protocols are standards...

  • Examples:


Slide 32 - Tekstslide

Hardware Standards
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Can you go and take a look and see what the above is?

Slide 33 - Tekstslide

So, what is IEEE?

Slide 34 - Tekstslide

Packet Switching
  • Packet switching is a method of transmitting data over a network in which data is broken down into small units called packets. These packets are then transmitted independently over the network, with each packet containing the destination address, source address, and other relevant information.

  • The packets are sent in a non-sequential manner and are reassembled at the receiving end of the connection.

Slide 35 - Tekstslide

Circuit Switching
  • Circuit switching is a communication method in which a dedicated physical connection is established between two devices for the duration of their communication. In circuit switching, a dedicated path, or circuit, is reserved between the sender and the receiver for the entire duration of the communication.

  • The entire bandwidth of the circuit is reserved exclusively for the use of the communicating devices. This guarantees that the devices will have uninterrupted, high-quality communication during the entire duration of the circuit.

Slide 36 - Tekstslide

Transport Layer
Application Layer

Slide 37 - Sleepvraag

Internet Layer
Link Layer

Slide 38 - Sleepvraag

What is packet switching?
A type of encryption
A method of storing data
Data is divided into small packets
Each packet follows the same route

Slide 39 - Quizvraag

What is Circuit Switching?
A type of communication where multiple devices can share the same physical path.
A type of communication where data is transmitted wirelessly.
A type of communication where a dedicated physical path is established between two devices for the duration of the connection.
A type of communication where data is transferred in packets.

Slide 40 - Quizvraag