V5 period 4 - grammar unit 28 and 29

Today's class
Literature test 
Presentations (weeks 19/20/21/22 -> 3 lessons whenever possible)

Grammar units 28/29/30/31/32

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Slide 1: Tekstslide
EngelsMiddelbare schoolvwoLeerjaar 5

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Today's class
Literature test 
Presentations (weeks 19/20/21/22 -> 3 lessons whenever possible)

Grammar units 28/29/30/31/32

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Fill in the correct relative pronoun
  1. ..... is walking over there?
  2. ..... bag is this?
  3. .... do you prefer: coffee or tea?
  4. Working late, ... is a nasty habit of mine, is something to be avoided.
  5. The thing ... I hate most is people cutting you off on the highway.
  6. For ... the bell tolls
  7. To .... did you send the letter?
  8. Holidays start in two weeks' time, ... is a great thing!

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

U. 28 - Word order
SVOPT = subject - verb/predicate -  indirect object - direct object - place - time

Henry bought tickets for the match in London last week
He gave Tom the tickets.

Adverbs of frequency (never, ever, often etc.)
Before "to be"
Before "have to"
Before infinitive (hele ww)
After 1st auxiliary (hww)

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

U. 28 - Word order

Adverbs probably, also, definitively:
After "to be"
After 1st auxiliary (hww)
Before infinitive (hele ww)

Adverbs of manner (quietly, slowly etc.)
Usually at the end of the sentence

Adverbs modify adjectives
incredibly beautiful

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

U. 29  -Relative clauses & relative pronouns
Who = persons, pets (name); restrictive and non-restrictive
Whom = used after preposition (for whom, by whom, to whom etc.)
Whose = possessive (restrictive and non-restrictrive; persons and things)
Which = things, referring to main clause 
That = persons (informal), things 

Which = non-restrictive clause (extra infomation, not necessary to understand the meaning) -> These diamond rings, which are beautiful, belong to the queen.

That = restrictive clause (essential information, necessary to understand the meaning; no commas)-> The  thing that annoys me the most is tests after Easter.

Leave out the relative pronoun (who/which/that) if it is not the subject in the sentence.

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

U. 30 - Some/any
Some -> 
  • bevestigende zinnen
  • wanneer je verwacht dat het antwoord "ja" is (bijv. drinken vragen/aanbieden)
  • ongeveer (some hundred people showed up)
  • een of andere (some guy asked me to dance)

Any -> 
  • vragen/ontkennende zinnen (met "not" erin)
  • wie dan ook (anybody can do that type of job)
  • hardly + any (hardly anyone, anything etc.)

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Spelling of adverbs

adjective + LY

adjectives ending in 
  • LE -> LY (terrible -> terribly)
  • IC -> ICALLY (basic -> basically)
  • FUL -> FULLY (careful -> carefully; beautiful -> beautifully)
  • Y -> ILY (easy -> easily; happy -> happily)

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

 U. 31 - Adverb
Form: adjective + -LY (+ exceptions -> study SB p. 65)

Says something about:

  1. The entire sentence (Finally, they met.)
  2. An adjective (The really great event)
  3. Another adverb (He drove extremely fast)
  4. A verb (The dog listens well)

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

U. 31 - Adjective

Says something about a noun:

The green door; the hard work; the fast car

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Adjectives vs Adverbs - SB p. 65-69
  • The red car -> the adjective modifies the noun (bnw. zegt iets over het zelfst. nmw.)

  • The completely red car -> the adverb modifies the adjective (bw. zegt iets over het bnw.)

  • Fortunately, she drives the completely red car really well. (bw zegt iets over de hele zin; zegt iets over hoe je iets doet/over het werkwoord)

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

  • Adjective 1-syllable word - er/est (bigger than; the tallest)

  • Adjective (> or =) 3-syllable words - more/most (more beautiful than; the most beautiful)

  • Adjective 2-syllable words - er/est or more/most (SB p. 68)

  • Adverbs (ending in -LY) - more/most (She danced more beautifully than he did.)

  • Irregular adjectives and adverbs (good/better/best; bad/worse/worst; few/fewer/fewest; little/less/least etc.)

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Comparisons - irregular
  • good/better/best
  • bad/worse/worst

  • few/fewer/fewest (countable, weinig)
  • a few (countable, een paar)

  • little/less/least (non-countable, weinig) non-countable: materials; abstract nouns (love, hate)
  • a little (non-countable, een beetje)

  • many/more/most (countable, veel)
  • much/more/most (non-countable, veel)

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Comparative + Superlative forms of  adjectives
  • Adjective 1-syllable word - er/est (bigger than; the tallest)

  • Adjective (> or =) 3-syllable words - more/most (more beautiful than; the most beautiful)

  • Adjective 2-syllable words - er/est or more/most (SB p. 68)

  • Adjectives with 2 syllables ending with:  -er/ -ow/ -le AND the adjectives common, cruel, handsome, pleasant, quiet, stupid, sure -> TWO comparative forms: with er/est and with more/most

Forms of comparisons:
  • better THAN; more powerful THAN
  • AS good AS; not as good as
  • THE best; THE MOST wonderful gift

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Using comparative + superlative forms of adjectives

  • He is BETTER at mathematics THAN she is. -> THAN + comparative form

  • He is AS GOOD at mathematics AS his brother is -> AS ...AS + adjective form

  • He is NOT AS GOOD at mathematics AS his friend is -> NOT AS ... AS + adjective form

  • She is THE BEST -> THE + superlative form

  • THE HARDER she works, THE BETTER her grades become -> THE + comparative form, THE + comparative form

  • The child started crying HARDER AND HARDER -> comparative form + AND + comparative form

  • It is becoming MORE AND MORE difficult -> more and more + adjective form

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Comparative & Superlative forms of adverbs 

  • Adverbs (ending in -LY) 
     -> comparative(vergelijkende trap) =  more; 
     -> superlative (overtreffende trap) = most  
        for example:
         She dances more beautifully than he does, but her sister dances the most beautifully. 
          She talks more loudly than they do, however he talks the most loudly

  • Irregular adverbs (good/better/best; bad/worse/worst; few/fewer/fewest; little/less/least; fast/faster/fastest;  etc.)

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Adjectives with number
  • The 50-pound note/fifty-pound note
  • I have a note of fifty pounds.

  • The 80-year-old grandmother/The eighty-year-old grandmother.
  • The grandmother who is 80 years old

  • The 13-year-old girl/The thirteen-year-old girl
  • The girl who is thirteen years old

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

U. 33 - The Genitive

Indicates possession

Singular -> 's  (Tom's bike)
Plural ->  '  (My parents' car)

-> 's
James's bike
Alice's car
Dickens's novels

Names from antiquity (uit de oudheid):
' -> Socrates' ideas

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

The Genitive

Indicates possession

singular -> 's
plural -> '

An hour's walk
A three hours' drive

At my parents'
At Bob's
At the baker's
At my friend's

Slide 18 - Tekstslide


Indicates possession

Zaken / hoeveelheden / aardrijkskundige namen

The brakes of the bike
The legs of the chair

One cup of tea
Two pounds of sugar

The city of Amsterdam
The capital of Russia

Slide 19 - Tekstslide