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4.5 Dealing with climate change

4.5 Dealing with climate change
After studying this section, you will be able to:
  • Explain the difference between climate adaptation and mitigation
    ;
  • Describe solutions for climate change from the local to the global level.
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
AardrijkskundeMiddelbare schoolhavo, vwoLeerjaar 3

In deze les zitten 22 slides, met tekstslides en 2 videos.

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4.5 Dealing with climate change
After studying this section, you will be able to:
  • Explain the difference between climate adaptation and mitigation
    ;
  • Describe solutions for climate change from the local to the global level.

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Learning objectives
After studying this section, you will be able to:
  • Explain the difference between climate adaptation and mitigation;
  • Describe solutions for climate change from the local to the global level.

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Mitigation and adaptation
Mitigation includes all measures that limit the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Examples of mitigation:
  • Reducing the transfers of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, for example by using solar power. 
  • Enhancing the stores of carbon dioxide, for example by stopping deforestation practices and afforestation. 

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Mitigation and adaptation
The climate is already changing and these changes are unlikely to halt once the carbon budget is balanced, so adaptation is also necessary. 

Adaptation consists of measures that are taken in order to deal with the consequences of a changing climate, such as higher storm surge barriers to protect the hinterland from a rising sea level. 

Some measures combine both mitigation and adaptation.

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Reforestation of mangrove trees in Thailand is both climate mitigation and adaptation, through increased flood protection.

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Mitigation & adaptation in our country
Mitigation on a national scale level:
Energy agreement (2013) by the government, companies and organisations. There are two aims to work towards an energy transition:
  1. Increase the use of solar and wind power;
  2. Decrease the energy use, by better insulation of houses and the development of appliances which are more energy efficient.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Mitigation & adaptation in our country
Adaptation on a local or regional scale level:
  • Municipalities, schools and individuals turn empty plots of land into a space that can store water from heavy rainfall events.
  • Trees are planted to provide shade during heat waves (which function as mitigation at the same time).
  • In Rotterdam the first water square was completed in 2013. It functions as a basketball court, skate park and meeting-place for the local schools, but during heavy rainfall, the court turns into a water storage space.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

The Benthemplein in Rotterdam is a water square, which is an example of an adaptation project in the Netherlands.

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Isolated and insulated
The Dutch word isoleren can mean two different things: 
  1. ‘Separate’, ‘seclude’ or ‘alone’. In English, the word ‘isolate’ is used. 
  2. To limit the amount of warmth or noise that is lost from a building or body. This is translated in English as ‘insulate’.

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

International response (1)
Mitigation is more effective on a larger scale, as greenhouse gases move across international boundaries. Agreements are reached at international meetings, attended by world leaders. 
The most notable were those in Kyoto (1997) and Paris (2015). 
In Kyoto, the following targets were agreed upon:
  1.  MEDCs > reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 5% below the emissions of 1990 by 2012.
  2. LEDCs > reduce the CO2 emissions to the level of 1990 by 2005.

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

International response (2)
Few countries met the targets set in the Kyoto protocol. 
  • Many LEDCs argued that MEDCs had been able to become wealthy by permitting polluting industries and transportation in their countries. 
  • They felt it was unfair that this same group of countries was criticising the rapidly developing LEDCs for developing further.
  • In 2001 the USA refused to sign a treaty that allowed 80% of the world, including countries like China and India, not to participate.

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

International response (3)
Result of the Kyoto protocol: 
  • The number of countries decreasing their CO2 output was higher than the number of countries that increased it. 
  • Especially China increased its CO2 emissions by a lot (figure 4.32).
  • Overall result: global CO2 emissions increased from 1990 to 2015.

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

International response (4)
Paris agreement (2015):
  • All countries agreed to try and cut greenhouse gas emissions, so that the average global temperature would rise less than 2°C, when compared to levels before 1850. 
  • However, at subsequent meetings it has been shown that it is very difficult to turn this agreement into concrete actions.

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Annual CO2 emissions by world region (figure 4.31)
CO2 emissions have increased globally from pre-industrial levels. There are large differences between the emissions of different world regions.

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Talking point
At the 2018 COP in Poland, Swedish 15-year old Greta Thunberg told world leaders that they are “stealing the future of their children, in front of their very eyes” by not taking action on climate change. Do you agree?

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

The Netherlands spent half a billion Euros in the construction of the Maeslant barrier, which protects the country from flooding. The barrier might need to close more often when sea level rises. How will LEDCs afford such investments?

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

China’s take on climate change
(read part H)

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Slide 19 - Video

Slide 20 - Video

Essence
There are two coping strategies for climate change: mitigation, which encompasses measures that limit the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and adaptation, which are solutions for the consequences of changing climate. These solutions can be implemented at all different geographic scale levels. However, adaptation measures are undertaken at a local or regional scale, whereas mitigation needs cooperation at an international level. Internationally, a fund has been set up to help LEDCs adapt to climate change.

Slide 21 - Tekstslide

Homework 3VT
Friday 18 June, 3rd hour:
  • Work on your documentary
  • Read 4.5 (textbook + LessonUp)
  • Do 4.5, ex. 3, 6, 8 and 10

Slide 22 - Tekstslide