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Abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear (Secondary)

ABANDONED, LOST AND DISCARDED (ALD) FISHING GEAR
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
MathematicsScience+47-9 Grade9-11 Grade

In deze les zitten 35 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 2 videos.

time-iconLesduur is: 45 min

Introductie

Overfishing is emptying the ocean, with 90% of fisheries already overfished. Issues such as by-catch are having a significant impact on marine wildlife. This includes entanglement in Abandoned, Lost and Discarded commercial fishing gear.

Instructies

In this lesson we explain the issue of abandoned, lost and discarded (ALD) fishing gear by the commercial fishing industry and the impact it has on marine wildlife.

Time: 45 minutes

Contact: education@seashepherdglobal.org
© Sea Shepherd 2021

Onderdelen in deze les

ABANDONED, LOST AND DISCARDED (ALD) FISHING GEAR

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

This lesson is provided by Sea Shepherd.  Sea Shepherd was founded in 1977 and is a marine conservation organisation working to protect the oceans and marine wildlife.  Sea Shepherd works globally on a range of issues impacting the oceans, running numerous direct action campaigns each year.  Ocean pollution is one area Sea Shepherd is working on to help stop marine wildlife dying.
What you already know...
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Watch  the video

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

During the lesson we will use these icons to identify the learning actions.
Abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear and it's impacts on marine wildlife.
Abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear and it's impacts on marine wildlife.

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

In this lesson we explain the issue of abandoned, lost and discarded (ALD) fishing gear by the commercial fishing industry and the impact it has on marine wildlife.

INTERACTIVE JOIN – ask students to go to www.LessonUp.app

What do you already know
about abandoned, lost and
discarded fishing gear?

Slide 4 - Woordweb

What do you already know?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“What do you already know about abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear?”

Slide 5 - Video

Empty ocean by 2050
Scientists estimate that by 2050 the ocean ecosystem will be on the verge of collapse, empty of fish and marine wildlife, unless urgent action is taken on the issues impacting on the oceans and marine wildlife.

Show this video (2.53min), which explains how important all species are to our planet.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLcA31VRlRU

Discuss the video with the class and what it means.

Abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear
become deadly ghosts in the ocean.
Abandoned, lost and discarded fishing gear become deadly ghosts in the ocean.

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

ALD fishing gear
One area contributing to marine wildlife deaths and significantly contributing to plastic pollution in the ocean is abandoned, lost and discarded (ALD) fishing gear from commercial fishing vessels.

These nets are also referred to as ‘ghost’ nets, because they float in the ocean for years to come, haunting and killing marine wildlife.

Thousands of innocent victims each year.
150,000 whales, dolphins and seals  200,000 sea birds.

Thousands of innocent victims each year.
150,000 whales, dolphins and seals  200,000 sea birds.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Innocent victims
Over 150,000 whales, dolphins and seals are killed by ghost nets each year.

Over 200,000 sea birds are killed by ghost nets each year.

640,000 tonnes of ALD fishing gear each year.
640,000 tonnes of ALD fishing gear each year.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Over 640,000 tonnes of ALD gear each year
Every year the commercial fishing industry, both legal and illegal, is responsible for over 640,000 tonnes of fishing gear abandoned, lost or discarded into the ocean.
 
An estimated 1,250 kilometres (776.7 miles) of net are lost in UK deep water fisheries alone every year.

Why or how
do you think fishing gear is
abandoned, lost or discarded?

Slide 9 - Woordweb

Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Why or how do you think fishing gear is abandoned, lost or discard?”

Abandoned fishing gear
Abandoned –  means the deliberate non retrieval of fishing gear.


ABANDONED
FISHING GEAR


Abandoned  –  means the deliberate non retrieval of fishing gear.

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

What does ALD mean?

Abandoned –  means the deliberate non retrieval of fishing gear.

Which means the nets or lines are in the water but they choose not to retrieve them.


Why do you think fishing gear
might be abandoned?

Slide 11 - Open vraag

Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Why do you think fishing gear might be abandoned?”

Abandoned fishing gear
Law enforcement pressure.

Abandoned fishing gear
Law enforcement pressure.

IUU fishing – gear left behind as vessels flee law enforcement.

Illegal gear – left behind before going into port in case they are inspected.

Leave behind if they run out of time to collect.

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Abandoned fishing gear
Nets are abandoned mainly because of law enforcement pressure:
➢    IUU fishing – gear left behind as illegal fishing vessels flee from law enforcement
➢    Illegal gear – left behind before going into port in case they are inspected.
➢    Too much gear to collect – leave behind if they run out of time to collect.



LOST FISHING GEAR

Lost – means that the fishing gear is accidentally lost at sea.

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Lost fishing gear
Lost – means that the fishing gear is accidentally lost at sea.

.

Lost fishing gear
Spatial and environment conditions.

Becomes entangled with another vessels gear.

The fishing gear is  unintentionally lost, nets loose buoys / floats or move with bad weather.
 
Nets or lines caught and can’t be retrieved – caught on rocks or reef systems.

Extreme weather – lost during bad weather or has to be left as they flee to escape the storm.

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

How is fishing gear lost?
This is due mainly to spatial and environmental conditions:
➢    Conflict between fishing gear – this may be because it becomes entangled with someone else’s gear or another vessel (ie gillnets fixed in place caught by a vessel trawling/towing nets).
➢    The fishing gear is misplaced – unintentionally lost, nets loose buoys / floats or move with bad weather.
➢    Poor ground – nets or lines may be caught and can’t be retrieved – caught on rocks or reef systems.
➢    Extreme weather – gear is lost during bad weather or has to be left when fishing vessels flee to escape the storm – break free or have to be cut free.



DISCARDED
FISHING GEAR


Discarded – is the deliberate disposal at sea of fishing gear.

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Discarded fishing gear
Discarded – is the deliberate disposal at sea of fishing gear.

This is gear that might be on the ships decks and they choose to dump it overboard.

Discarded fishing gear
Operational / economic pressure.

Too much gear for the space on board, especially if they have a big fish catch.

Dump old gear rather than having to dispose of properly on shore, saving them money by dumping over board.

 Gear is damaged and have no use for it, so easier to dump overboard than pack up and secure for onshore disposal.

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

Why is fishing gear discarded?
This can occur due to operational / economic pressure:
➢    The vessel may have too much gear for the space on board, especially if they have a big fish catch, so they dump nets overboard to reduce weight.
➢    The vessel chose to dump old gear rather than having to dispose of it properly on shore, saving them money by dumping over board.
➢    The gear is damaged and the vessel has no use for it, so easier to dump overboard than pack up and secure for onshore disposal.

tion.



CASE STUDY
North Atlantic fishing fleet

Fleet of 50 ships

Each ship lost up to 30km of net every 2 month fishing trip.

Every 2 months = 1,500 kms
of net lost.

750 tonnes of plastic pollution.

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

Case Study – North Atlantic deep sea shark fishing
During the 1990’s a fleet of 50 ships fished the North Atlantic for deep sea sharks, so they could sell the shark liver oil from the sharks caught.

Ships would have between 6,000-9,000km (3,728-5,592 miles) of gillnet in the water at a time.

On average each ship would lose up to 30km (18.6 miles) of gillnet, every trip they made out to fish.  Each vessel would head out for up to 2 months at a time.  This means the fleet of 50 vessels were losing up to 1,500km (932 miles) of gillnet every two months, which equals 750 tonnes of plastic pollution. This is just one fleet of 50 ships.


TYPES OF FISHING
DRIFTNETS

Driftnet refers to the setting of nets along the top of the ocean.

A driftnet hangs vertically in the water attached to ropes along the ocean surface with buoys and weights along the bottom.

Target pelagic fish that live in open ocean.

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Types of ALD nets and fishing gear lost
Driftnet refers to the setting of nets along the top of the ocean.  A driftnet is not anchored to the ocean floor, instead it hangs vertically in the water attached to ropes along the ocean surface with buoys and weights along the bottom. These nets are used to target pelagic fish, which simply means fish that are not in coastal waters, reefs or on the seabed. They live in open ocean and can be several kilometres under the surface.



Illegal poachers are often caught using illegal driftnets. In December 1991 the United Nations General Assembly approved a resolution banning the use of driftnets longer than 2.5km in international waters, commencing from 1993.  

They are still used by poachers.

Sea Shepherd Case Study Operation Driftnet provides additional learning in this area.


TYPES OF FISHING
GILLNETS

Gillnets are walls of netting set in a straight line, using floats on the surface the length of the lines can be adjusted to set the nets at varying depths.

They are usually set several kilometres below the surface and can be many kilometres long.

They are used for deep living fish like toothfish. 

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

Gillnets
Gillnets are walls of netting set in a straight line that are very effective at trapping fish. Using floats on the surface the length of the lines can be adjusted to set the nets at varying depths. They are usually set several kilometres below the surface and can be many kilometres long.  They are used for deep living fish like toothfish.  Laws on gillnets vary between countries.

The use of gillnets goes back several centuries.  The traditional versions were made of organic materials, such as hemp, which means that if they were lost at sea they would breakdown and not be an issue for marine wildlife.

Current nets are made from plastics and can float in the oceans for many years to come trapping unsuspecting marine wildlife.  

Sea Shepherd Case Study Operation Icefish provides additional learning in this area.


TYPES OF FISHING
LONG LINES

Long lines are fishing lines that can run for up to 100 km with thousands of baited barbed hooks.

Pelagic long line, which consists of a main line with shorter lines attached containing the hooks.

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

Long line fishing
Long lines are fishing lines that can run for up to 100 km (62.1miles) with thousands of baited barbed hooks. They will catch everything that tries to go for the bait or any fish caught on the hooks.  This includes sharks, seals and turtles.

These lines are also dangerous to sea birds, who will try to dive and take the bait from the hooks or the fish caught on them.  There are two types of long lines, both consist of a main fishing line from which shorter lines containing hooks:
➢    pelagic long line uses normal fishing line for the main line.
➢    cable long line uses a heavy wire line for the main line.


TYPES OF FISHING
FISH AGGREGATING DEVICES (FAD)

These devices are designed to lure fish into an area to make it easier to find and catch fish.

Small fish use the floating debris to hide from larger fish in the open ocean.

Larger fish know this so visit the debris in search of an easy meal.


Slide 21 - Tekstslide

Other fishing gear
Other gear includes:
➢    Craypots
➢    Fish traps
➢    FAD’s – fish aggregation device – designed to attract sea life.

FADs are comprised of 2 parts: a floating part made of plastic tanks and palm leaves, and an anchored part, usually made by a long polypropylene twine tied around a weight of concrete or stones that anchors the device deeply to the seabed.

Why are nets and other gear
not recovered by the
fishing industry?

Slide 22 - Woordweb

Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Why are nets and other gear not recovered by the fishing industry?”

Some answers might be:
➢    Cost of removing.
➢    Not having the right equipment.
➢    Operating illegally and running from authorities.
➢    Unable to locate lost gear as there are no tracking devices on them.



Why are nets and other gear not recovered by fishing industry?


No location tracking device on fishing gear.

Fishing gear is not tagged by owners.

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

Why ALD fishing gear is not retrieved?
Why does the fishing industry not retrieve nets, why are they not held accountable?

One of the main reasons for not retrieving nets is that they are not traceable. No GPS or other location device is left attached to the nets. They may have recorded the coordinates of where the gear was set, but in bad weather it may have moved. Some vessels may not have GPS locators at all.

Secondly fishing gear is also not tagged by the owners so it is hard to trace who is responsible for the fishing gear once it is retrieved by another vessel.

There are no international regulations requiring fishing gear to be identifiable or trackable.

Slide 24 - Video

Implications for marine wildlife and the ocean
Marine wildlife becomes entangled in ghost nets.

As mentioned earlier estimates say that over 150,000 whales, dolphins and seals are killed by ghost nets each year.

Some nets are made from materials that make them hard to detect underwater, which is why they are effective fishing tools.

Over 200,000 sea birds are killed by ghost gear each year.

Show this video (5.22 min) from Sea Shepherd’s Operation Milagro as the crew and Mexican Navy work to free a whale trapped in illegal gillnets.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L49AbW3wvJY&t=25s

Migrating whales become trapped in nets or cray pots.
Migrating whales become trapped in nets or cray pots.

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

Migrating whales
Some fishing industries operate in areas known to be migration paths for whales. Migrating whales can easily become entangled in ropes from cray pots and traps.


PLASTIC POLLUTION

Nets are made of Nylon -  up to 40 years before breaking up.

Fishing lines can be made of monofilament - last up to 600 years before breaking up. Pelagic long lines can be over 80kms long.

Slide 26 - Tekstslide

Plastic pollution
ALD nets are made from plastics like nylon and can float in the oceans for many years to come, trapping any marine wildlife that come in contact with them.  

➢    Nylon can last up to 40 years before breaking up.
➢    Fishing lines can be made of monofilament, which can last up to 600 years before breaking up. Pelagic long lines can be 80km (49.7 miles) or more of monofilament line.

North Pacific Gyre
Up to 46% is plastic from fishing gear.
North Pacific Gyre
Up to 46% is plastic from fishing gear.

Slide 27 - Tekstslide

North Pacific Ocean Gyre
Researchers studying the North Pacific Ocean gyre, for plastic pollution, estimated that discarded fishing nets and lines could make up as much as 46% of the plastics floating in this big patch of garbage (2018 study).

Removing illegal nets and lines from the ocean.
Sea Shepherd conducting campaigns around world.


Removing illegal nets and lines from the ocean.

Sea Shepherd conducting campaigns around world.

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

Removing illegal nets and lines from the ocean
Organisations like Sea Shepherd are conducting campaigns around the world to remove these nets from the ocean.  

Refer Sea Shepherd Case Study lessons for examples.


How do you think ALD fishing gear
and it's impacts can be reduced?

Slide 29 - Open vraag

Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“How do you think the amount of ALD fishing gear and it’s impacts could be reduced?”

Ways to reduce
ALD fishing gear?
  • Tackle IUU fishing.
  • Introduce tracking devices on fishing gear.
  • Compulsory monitoring and recovery of nets.
  • Change materials used to make gear.
  • Required reporting of lost gear and its location.
  • Reduce risk fishing practices.
  • Required identification on all gear.




Slide 30 - Tekstslide

Ways to reduce ALD fishing gear and their impacts
Ways to reduce might include:
➢    Tackle the issue of illegal fishing.
➢    Introducing tracking measures on nets and gear.
➢    Compulsory monitoring of nets – fishing industry required to take responsibility and recover ALD nets.
➢    Change the materials nets are made from.
➢    Required reporting of lost gear and its location.
➢    Reduce risky fishing practices, such as not setting in bad weather.
➢    Required identification on all fishing gear.

How do you think you could
help reduce plastic pollution
from fishing gear?

Slide 31 - Woordweb

Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“How do you think you could help with plastic pollution from fishing gear? “

➢    Make sure take home fishing gear.
➢    Report dumped fishing nets you spot in the water.
➢    Help remove rubbish from beaches and ocean, by doing clean ups – sometimes nets wash ashore.
➢    Train how to dive for nets and join an organisation like Sea Shepherd to help with recovering ALD fishing gear.



Write down three things you have learned?

Slide 32 - Open vraag

What did you learn?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Write down three things you have learned?”



Write down one thing you didn't understand?

Slide 33 - Open vraag

What don’t you understand?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Write down one thing you didn’t understand?”

Slide 34 - Tekstslide

Sea Shepherd Case Studies
To enhance learning on this topic use one of Sea Shepherd’s Case Studies.

www.seashepherdglobal.org

Slide 35 - Tekstslide

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