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4.2 Manorial system and feudalism

AGE 3: The Time of monks and knights
4.2 Manorial system and Feudalism 
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In deze les zitten 32 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 3 videos.

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AGE 3: The Time of monks and knights
4.2 Manorial system and Feudalism 

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

What is this lesson about?
In the Early Middle Ages, life was dangerous due to continuous wars. Many people became farmers to survive. But did they really own the land that they farmed?







Slide 2 - Tekstslide

What are the main questions of this lesson?
How did people live in the Middle Ages?
Most people lived in the countryside because of lack of trade. Farmers turned into serfs, who received housing, land and protection from powerful lords, in return for rent and services. This is called the manorial system. People were mostly self-sufficient.

What was feudalism?
Feudalism was a medieval government system, based on the bond between kings and nobles: the king gave land in fief to nobles, in return for their fealty, which was loyalty, military support in times of war and council whenever the king wanted it.



Slide 3 - Tekstslide

What are the main questions of this lesson?
What was the difference between the manorial system and feudalism?
The manorial system was an agreement of protection between farmers and a lord. 
Feudalism was a government system, based on the loyalty between nobles and the king.

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Word Duty





agricultural society: a society whose economy is mainly based on farming.
barter: exchange one thing for another, without using money.
domain: a large farmhouse or fortified building where the lord lived.
feudalism: medieval government system based on the bond between the king and nobles.
fief: the land which a lord lent to a vassal.
knight: a vassal without fief who was a military specialist.
manor: a large piece of land owned by a lord.
manorial system: system in which a lord provided protection to his serfs in return for their services.
nobles: the most important vassals that served under a king.
pledge fealty: to swear loyalty.
self-sufficient: when people are able to produce everything they need themselves.
serf: farmer who depended entirely on his lord. He was not allowed to leave the manor.










KEY WORDS

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

B. Agricultural society

In the Early Middle Ages:
  • trade was gone (not safe to travel)
  • (Roman) cities were deserted
  • Europe became an agricultural society (= key word)
  • famers asked protection from powerful lords
  • the lords asked farmers to work on their land in return


Slide 6 - Tekstslide

C. The manorial system:


  • a manor is a large piece of land made up of 2 parts:
  • 1: part where the lord lived; the domain ( = castle + farmland)
  • 2: part where the farmers lived: (lord's land + farmhouses) 


Slide 7 - Tekstslide

The lord and the farmers made a deal.
It looked like this:
Gives to farmers:
1. protection
2. housing and land

FARMERS


LORD

Gives back to the lord:
1. part of the harvest
2. some free work

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Slide 9 - Video

manor farm
The place where the lord lived and from where he ruled the village. 
Many times the manor was fortified by walls. Sometimes the manor was built on top of a small hill and surrounded by a palissade. 
The manor farm consisted of the manor (= fortified farmhouse / castle) + some land with orchards, farming fields and work places around it. 

mill
The mill was where people grounded wheat and grain. 
It was owned by the lord.
Serf peasants could use the mill to grind their grain, but of course they had to pay the lord for this. The payment was not money, but a percentage of the produce of the peasant.
farm
The houses the peasants (= farmers) lived in were not as nice as the manor house. They were thatched roofed
The palissade surrounds the manor farm. If the domain is attacked the peasants can find shelter within the walls of the manor farm.
Peasants worked on farm land for the lord in exchange for protection and land.
church
The church is where holy events took place (weddings, sermons, funerals). The church is also where the sick would be taken care of.
Sometimes the lord used this place to speak justice. He could hand out punishments to criminals.
A Shepard worked with the livestock in the fields. This would help produce food and cloth for the village
orchard
the manor's orchard. 
servile duties
This meant that serfs needed to work for the lord two or three days a week. They worked the lord's fields, or built and repaired his palissade.

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

D. Serfs:

  • the farmers depended on the Lord
  • they became serfs (farmers who are not free)
  • The rules for serfs:
  1. don't leave the manor to live somewhere else
  2. don't marry without the lord's permission
  3. pay extra (taxes) to use the lord's mill
  • Manors were self-sufficient.
  • Money was scarce, so people bartered (barter = ruilhandel)


Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Slide 12 - Video

To practise this lesson:
Go to Eduhint, lesson 4.2 and do questions:

1,2,3,5,7

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

watch the next video about Feudalism

Feudalism in Dutch =
leenstelsel / feodalisme

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

0

Slide 15 - Video

E. Feudalism (het leenstelsel)

How did lords own so much land?
  • it was given to them (as a loan) by the king.
  • this land was called a "fief".
  • In return the lord had to pledge fealty to his king:
  1. - be loyal to the king
  2. - give military support (soldiers) to the king
  3. - give council (advise) to the king


Slide 16 - Tekstslide

Who owned all the land?
A
the lords
B
the farmers
C
the king
D
the church

Slide 17 - Quizvraag

The king gave parts of his land as a loan to his
A
farmers
B
priests
C
wife
D
nobles

Slide 18 - Quizvraag

this land was called a
A
domain
B
manor
C
province
D
fief

Slide 19 - Quizvraag

The king got 3 things from his vassal in return for land.

Which is NOT one of them?
A
loyalty (trouw)
B
military support (soldiers)
C
taxes (belasting
D
council (advise)

Slide 20 - Quizvraag

the nobles could keep the land as
long as they were loyal
A
TRUE
B
FALSE

Slide 21 - Quizvraag

When the noble received a fief, he became the king's:
A
servant
B
partner
C
vassal
D
knight

Slide 22 - Quizvraag

Extra: Charlemagne (Karel de Grote)

  • king of the Franks
  • he was a Christian (like most Franks)
  • He fought wars against the Saxons (in Germany)
  • He spread Christianity in his empire
  • in 800 AD the pope crowned him EMPEROR
  • from then on kings and emperors were crowned by the pope.
  • this makes the pope also very powerful.
  • Charlemagne founded many schools.



Slide 23 - Tekstslide

The Franks were Christians
A
TRUE
B
FALSE

Slide 24 - Quizvraag

The Saxons were Christians
A
TRUE
B
FALSE

Slide 25 - Quizvraag

The Saxons lived in Germany
A
TRUE
B
FALSE

Slide 26 - Quizvraag

The Saxons were allowed to keep their own gods
A
TRUE
B
FALSE

Slide 27 - Quizvraag

Saxons who did not want to become Christians were killed
A
TRUE
B
FALSE

Slide 28 - Quizvraag

the Saxons were defeated by Charlemagne
A
TRUE
B
FALSE

Slide 29 - Quizvraag

Charlemagne used the Feudal system to rule his empire
A
TRUE
B
FALSE

Slide 30 - Quizvraag

Charlemagne was very good at reading and writing
A
TRUE
B
FALSE

Slide 31 - Quizvraag

Charlemagne wanted to spread education and
trade in his empire
A
TRUE
B
FALSE

Slide 32 - Quizvraag