Bricks 3 chapter 2


Cities and their functions
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
AardrijkskundeMiddelbare schoolhavoLeerjaar 3

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Cities and their functions

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What is a city?!

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What is a city?!

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What is a city?!

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What is a city?!

How many people?!

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The first cities
fertile crescent
intersection of roads

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Organic growth
Planned growth

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Organic growth
Planned growth

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The functions of cities

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The functions of cities

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The functions of cities

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2.2 Brussels: a city of political power

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1.  What is the function of an administrative centre?
2. How did the city of Brussels develop to become an administrative centre?
3. Why is Brussels a popular city for many NGOs?
4. How do the NGOs and EU institutions in Brussels influence the city?

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Middle Ages
- agricultural community, using fertile ground along the river
- trade, new routes (Bruges, Ghent, Cologne)

Result: an important political, economic and religious centre.

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20th century and forward
- Industrial Revolution, workers migrating to the city

Result: agglomeration

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Rejuvenation = The process in which a city’s older and decayed areas are reconstructed and restored.

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Rejuvenation of the Canal Zone in Brussels.
Rejuvenation as a part of urban renewal.

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Administrative centre = A city with a political function where important decisions are made.

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Brussels, capital city of the European Union

Geographical location
- between France and Germany
- central position
- multiple languages are spoken

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Effects on the city
An international city

Traffic jams..
Brussels in relation 
to the rest of Belgium..

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2.3 London: international financial centre

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The City, London’s financial heart.

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1. How does London's history affect its current function?
2. What is the function of the financial centre?
3. What are the reasons for London becoming an international financial centre?
4. How does the financial sector in London influence living in the city?

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London: international financial centre 
In London are a lot of financial institutions = Companies that provide loans, insurance and investment assistance.

How was it possible for London to gain such global importance?

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London: international financial centre 
London is a financial centre (= A city with a strong focus on trade and the exchange of capital) of global importance.

The city has a service-based economy = An economy where the tertiary sector is the most important sector.

Number of universities > highly educated population.

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Reasons for becoming a financial centre 
  1. Cultural reason: English is the most important language for verbal communication in international business.
  2. Geographical reason: London’s favourable geographical location in the world. It's a bridge between the US, Europe and Asian markets.
  3. Historical reason: London was once the centre of an empire that stretched all the way around the globe. 
  4. Political reason: Business-friendly environment in the CBD. Taxes for companies are kept low by the UK government, making it an attractive place for companies to be located. Furthermore, the infrastructure of the city is known to work well. Especially good is the access to aviation routes, with five airports located within easy reach of the city. There is also a direct train connection to France.

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The consequences of the financial sector for London
  1.  House prices are very high. Only richer people can afford to live in the city centre;
  2. London has attracted people from higher cosmopolitan social classes and has become a very elite area;
  3. Modern architecture is often situated next to older Victorian buildings;
  4. Many Londoners living outside the centre feel disconnected to this part of the city;
  5. As more and more international companies settle in the city, the number of international people continues to increase.

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2.4 Shanghai: city of transport and distribution

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First Opium War = A series of military engagements, fought and won by the British, to force China to import opium.

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Shanghai as 
transport hub
Transport hub
A city where goods are stored and distributed all over the world.

The world's busiest container port 
A harbour that specialises in the storage, handling and shipping of containers.

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Strengths & weaknesses of Shanghai
  • Shanghai profits greatly from export. 
  • Reason: China joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) and signed free trade agreements with other nations. 
  • As a result, Shanghai not only exports a lot of products, but also attracts a lot of foreign direct investments (FDIs): companies are taken over or a new company is started, as production costs are lower here.

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