De opkomst van Hitler

9. De Tijd van Wereldoorlogen
De opkomst van Hitler

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This lesson contains 46 slides, with interactive quiz, text slides and 3 videos.

time-iconLesson duration is: 50 min

Items in this lesson

9. De Tijd van Wereldoorlogen
De opkomst van Hitler

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What associations do you
get with this symbol?

Slide 3 - Mind map

people in this lesson
Benito Mussolini
Adolf Hitler

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Slide 5 - Video

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Nov 11, 1918: ARMISTICE

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the Weimar Republic
1918 - 1933

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the Reichstag:           the German parliament

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Slide 12 - Video

The Weimar Republic (1918 - 1933)
  • the name of a parliament or the number of members differs per country:

  • NL: Staten-Generaal: Tweede Kamer (150 seats)
  • UK: Parliament: House of Commons (650 seats)
  • USA: Congress: House of Representatives (435 seats)
  • Germany: Bundestag (before 1945: Reichstag) (598 seats)

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The Weimar Republic (1919 - 1933)
  • In some countries there is an additional "chamber" that serves as an extra check before a law is passed.

  • NL: Staten-Generaal: Tweede Kamer + Eerste Kamer (senaat) 
  • UK: Parliament: House of Commons + House of Lords
  • USA: Congress: House of Representatives + Senate

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Tweede Kamer, Den Haag

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House of Commons, London

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House of Representatives, Washington

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Bundestag, Berlin

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Reichstag, Berlin, 1922

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Reichstag, Berlin, 1939

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The Weimar Republic (1919 - 1933)
Na de eerste algemene verkiezingen voor de Reichstag in een democratisch Duitsland werd de grootste partij: de sociaaldemocraten (SDP, = zoals onze PvdA), gevolgd door de liberalen (= zoals onze VVD) en de katholieken (= zoals ons CDA).

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The Weimar Republic (1919 - 1933)
These parties all embrace freedom and democracy. That is why we say that they belong to the political center.

  • There were also political parties that hated democracy, for example:

  • communists (who wanted a country like the Soviet Union)
  • nationalists (who wanted Germany to be a strong empire again)

  • These undemocratic groups we call extremists.

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The Stab-in-the-back Myth
a story created by extremist right nationalists:

The German army did not lose WW1.
Germany was betrayed by democratic politicians who signed the Armistice and later the Treaty of Versailles.

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The Stab-in-the-back Myth

Hitler also believed 
that communists and especially the Jews
were part of this plot against Germany and its army.

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Hitler in politics

In 1919 Hitler joined a nationalistic party, the Deutsche Arbeiter Partei (DAP)

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Hitler in politics

The DAP was
- anti democratic
- anti communist
- anti-semitic (= anti-Jewish)

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Hitler turned out to be a good speaker.

He practised his expressions and gestures in front of a mirror.

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In 1920 Hitler became the leader of the DAP. He changed the name into N.S.D.A.P. He also used the swastika as the party's new symbol

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NSDAP: National-Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei.

Or in short: the Nazi Party

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1923: the Nazis try to seize power in Munich by force.
This is called a Putsch or Coup (staatsgreep)

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Why a Putsch in 1923 ?

  • In 1922, Mussolini successfully seized power in Italy. Hitler was inspired by this.

  • In 1923, Germany suffered from a hyper inflation, causing millions of Germans to lose all their money. 
    Hitler believed that the                German people were now            so desperate that they                  would support him

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Germany was forced to pay 132 billion goldmarks to the Allies

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Causes and effects of the Hyperinflation of 1923

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When Germany could not pay, the French occupied the Ruhr area to take resources as payment.

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German miners went on strike. 
The Weimar government promised to pay their wages.

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To keep paying the wages the government printed extra money.
Result: the value of the money decreased, causing inflation

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In months the inflation spiralled out of control: hyper-inflation.
Money was worthless. People lost all their savings.

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Slide 40 - Video

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The Munich Putsch fails and Hitler is arrested. He is sentenced to 9 months imprisonment.

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In prison, Hitler writes his book Mein Kampf (my struggle) in which he outlines his political ideas.

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Kortom, zijn ideeën en plannen zijn:

  • het Verdrag van Versailles omkeren
  • heropbouw van de Duitse strijdkrachten
  • verenig Duitsland en Oostenrijk
  • het Duitse grondgebied uitbreiden naar Oost-Europa (Lebensraum)
  • vernietig het communisme
  • het Germaanse ras (arisch ras) is superieur (= het meesterras)

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