5.2 The basics of demography

5.2 The basics of demography
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
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5.2 The basics of demography

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Learning objectives
After studying this section, you will be able to:
  • Name the main elements of demography
  • Explain which information is needed to make a population diagram

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

What is demography?
Demography is the science of human populations. 
It measures:

  • The size and growth of a population
  • Births and deaths
  • Immigrants and emigrants
  • Number of men and women
  • Distribution of age
It helps with the choices a government has to make for the future.

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Percentage and permillage
Demographic data uses two different ratios. 
Information can be given as:
  • Percentages = amount per 100 (%).
  • Permillages = amount per 1,000 (o/oo)

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Natural increase
 The birth rate is the number of babies born in a year per 1,000 inhabitants. The death rate is the number of deaths in a year per 1,000 inhabitants.

Birth rate - death rate = natural increase.
Example for the Netherlands:
Birth rate  = 10.8 o/oo.
Death rate = 8.5 o/oo.
Natural increase = 10.8 - 8.5 = 2.3 o/oo.

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Net migration
The difference between immigrants and emigrants, is called net migration.

With the information about births, deaths, immigration and emigration, it is possible to calculate the size of a population at the end of a year.

You count all the ‘new’ people (births and immigrants), and you subtract the people who left or passed away (emigrants and deaths). 

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Absolute & relative numbers
 You can calculate population growth in absolute or relative numbers:
  • Absolute numbers tell you the exact number of new inhabitants, for example 54,800 people. 
  • Relative numbers show you about growth as a percentage, for instance 0.31%.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Population diagrams are often named population pyramids, because of the shape they (used to) have. What name would you choose for the different diagrams?

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Qatar has a lot more men than women, especially between the ages of 20 and 50. The reason for this is the big group of migrants from other countries, moving to Qatar for work.

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Demography is the science of populations. Its main elements are size, composition and growth. Population growth is divided into natural increase and net migration. Natural increase is the difference between births and deaths, given as a percentage. Net migration is the difference between immigrants and emigrants. Demographic data is often laid out in population diagrams, showing the composition of a population by gender and age.

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Go to the planner in Teams for the homework

Slide 13 - Tekstslide