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3. The Romans

The Romans
 Section 3.1 - The conquest of a great empire
 Make questions: 3-4-5-6-7-8-10-12-13

 Section 3.2 - Life in the Roman Empire  
 Make questions: 2-3-5-6-7-9-10

 Section 3.3 - Greaco-Roman culture 
 Make questions: 1-3-5-6-8-9-10-12

 Section 3.4 - Christianity in Roman Empire 
 Make questions: 4-5-6-7-8-9-11-12-13


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The Romans
 Section 3.1 - The conquest of a great empire
 Make questions: 3-4-5-6-7-8-10-12-13

 Section 3.2 - Life in the Roman Empire  
 Make questions: 2-3-5-6-7-9-10

 Section 3.3 - Greaco-Roman culture 
 Make questions: 1-3-5-6-8-9-10-12

 Section 3.4 - Christianity in Roman Empire 
 Make questions: 4-5-6-7-8-9-11-12-13


Slide 1 - Tekstslide

1HVT1

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Tell me everything you
know about 'The Romans'

Slide 3 - Woordweb

3.1 The conquest of a great empire
Lesson objectives:
  • You can describe how the Roman Republic came into being and how the republic was governed.
  • You can explain how the Roman Empire grew into a huge empire.
  • You can give the key differences between the government of the Roman Republic and that of the Roman Empire.

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

3.1 The conquest of a great empire
The start of the Roman Republic
  • A settlement on the banks of the River Tiber (8th century BC) --> became a city ruled by kings --> in 509 Rome became a republic (a state governed by one or more elected leaders)
 

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

3.1 The conquest of a great empire
The start of the Roman Republic
  • The Republic was governed by a few hundred men (small group of rich families) --> the senate (decided on the laws) 
 
  • The most powerful people were the two consuls, who were chosen once a year by the people of Rome

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

3.1 The conquest of a great empire
The start of the Roman Republic
  • The consuls: led meetings, suggested laws and had the right to 'veto' (to stop a measure). They were also the leader of the army (leaders when there was peace, but also when there was war)


Slide 7 - Tekstslide

3.1 The conquest of a great empire
The growth of the Roman Empire
  • They started conquering around the 4th century BC --> around 272 BC they controlled present-day Italy --> then they gained control over the Mediterranean (to protect their trade). They had to defeat the Carthaginians for this --> They began to conquer more, resulting in: the Roman Empire

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

3.1 The conquest of a great empire
The growth of the Roman Empire
  • Two reasons why the Romans were successful at conquering: 
1. Good army (well-organized, well-trained)  + the soldiers were well rewarded
2.  They treated their enemies  well after defeating them. Once they had surrendered, the Romans would often make an alliance. The people who had been conquered had to obey and provide soldiers. They were allowed to keep their own religion and culture

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

3.1 The conquest of a great empire
The growth of the Roman Empire
  • Allied peoples had all kinds of advantages: they were protected, leaders had a say in Roman politics,  they could even be rewarded citizenship rights
  • Roman citizens had the right to a fair trial if they were accused of a crime

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

3.1 The conquest of a great empire
From the Roman Republic to Imperial Rome
  • How do you govern such an enormous empire? Generals became really powerful, they regularly tried to seize/get power 
  • Julius Caesar (general) --> he got into an argument with the senate, this started a civil war However, he got into an argument with the senate and this led to a civil war --> Caesar was made a dictator (absolute ruler) 


Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

3.1 The conquest of a great empire
From the Roman Republic to Imperial Rome
  • Imperial Rome was a success --> more peace (Pax Romana, Roman peace)
  • The Romans could build roads, bridges, start towns, people became richer
  • The empire reached its maximum size in around 200 AD.

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

3.1 The conquest of a great empire
From the Roman Republic to Imperial Rome
  • The senate had no more say in matters --> some disagreed and murdered Caesar --> this regulated into a war between generals --> Augustus won (Caesar's adopted son)
  • Augustus kept the senate but made it powerless. He also chose the 2 consuls every year. Augustus had all the power (title = caesar/emporer)   --> start of Imperial Rome 


Slide 15 - Tekstslide

A country that is governed by one or more elected leaders.
An assembly that governed the Roman Republic. The members came from the richest Roman families.
Most important administrator and army general in the Roman Republic.
The right to stop a decision being put into effect.
Empire covering a large area that existed roughly from 300 BC to 1450 AD. 
Roman citizens had certain special rights such as the right not to be sentenced without a trial.
Someone who rules alone.
Ruler of the Roman Empire.
A long period of peace and calm in the first and second centuries AD (literally ‘Roman peace’).
Dictator
Emperor
Roman Empire
Pax Romana
Citizenship rights 
Republic 
Senate
Consul
Veto right

Slide 16 - Sleepvraag

3.2 Life in the Roman Empire
Lesson objectives:
  • You can explain what big economic change took place in the Roman countryside at the time of the Roman Republic.
  • You can explain what consequences the changes in the Roman countryside had for the cities.
  • You can give a description of the position of slaves and women in Roman society.

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

3.2 Life in the Roman Empire
Life in the countryside
  •  Big landowners (high-ranked in the army and government) bought the small estates 
  •  They lived in houses called villas while the slaves did all the work (farming)

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

3.2 Life in the Roman Empire
Life in the city
  • The changed at the countryside had consequences for the cities   -> they grew because of the poor farmers. They only had their children (proles = proletarians)
  • Proletarians were dependent on gifts from the elite (the richest).
  • The elite was afraid that proletarians would protest -> they gave out food and drinking water (aqueducts)

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

3.2 Life in the Roman Empire
Life in the city
  • The elite also paid for gladiatorial games 
  • Apart from proletarians and the elite, you also had craftspeople, merchants etc. Slaves also lived in the city.
Slaves and women
  • Slaves had the lowest position in society. They belonged to a master and had no rights.  About one third of the population were slaves. Romans were able to turn a lot of prisoners of war into slaves.

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

3.2 Life in the Roman Empire
Life in the countryside
  • Most people lived in the countryside; free farmers with a bit of land. They formed an important social stratum
  • The group became smaller due to fighting and conquests -> family members that were left behind had financial problems and had to sell the land -> many moved to the cities for work 


Slide 21 - Tekstslide

3.3 Graeco-Roman culture
Learning objectives:
  • You can write down some features of Roman culture.
  •  You can explain how Graeco-Roman culture spread and what consequences that had for Germanic culture.
  •  You can describe how the Roman Empire came to an end.

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

3.3 Graeco-Roman culture
Roman culture
  •  Romans admired the Greek culture, they adopted many aspects of Greek architecture, sculpture, poetry and religion
  • Greek gods would be renamed: Zeus was now called Jupiter; his wife Hera would be Juno etc.
  • Because the Romans took over so many things from the Greeks, we speak of a Graeco-Roman culture.

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

3.2 Life in the Roman Empire
Slaves and women
  • Women also had very few rights. Controlled by the men in their lives. Task: household, children etc. 
  • Elite women could sometimes have political influence (via their husbands)

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

3.3 Graeco-Roman culture
Meeting local cultures
  • Graeco-Roman culture spread across Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (because of all the conquests)
  • People were allowed to keep their own religion and culture.
  • The local people would work for the Romans or trade with them. In return, they would learn about the Roman culture

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

3.3 Graeco-Roman culture

Slide 26 - Tekstslide

3.3 Graeco-Roman culture
The Romans
  • They also had their own customs: emperors were gods, clothing (toga), gladiator games, bathhouses
  • Good architects, engineers (roads, bridges, forts, central heating, sewers), but also organizers (army, administration)
  • Roman law: thought through and applied throughout the empire

Slide 27 - Tekstslide

3.3 Graeco-Roman culture
The collapse of the Roman Empire
  • The Empire (around 200AD) had some big problems:
1) The army was too small for the long borders
2) Taxes were so high so farmers abandoned their farms -->  agricultural production fell 
3) Soldiers felt a bigger connection to their general than their emperor
4) Power struggles between emperors 

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

3.3 Graeco-Roman culture
Meeting local cultures
  • People (Germanic) started dressing like Romans, learned Latin, even their gods changed. Germanic peoples = people who lived in Germany and the Netherlands
  • When the Germanic peoples came into contact with the Romans their culture changed: they started to write & read, got Latin names, started worshipping in temples etc.
  •  The arrival of the Romans had enormous consequences for Germanic culture.

Slide 29 - Tekstslide

3.3 Graeco-Roman culture

Slide 30 - Tekstslide

3.3 Graeco-Roman culture
The collapse of the Roman Empire
  • The Roman Empire split into two (395): Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire (so two emperors)
  • The Eastern Empire survived until 1453
  • The Western Roman Empire fell earlier (because of these issues). The Empire was also invaded by peoples such as the Visigoths and the Vandals. They were looking for farmland, protection etc.
  • The Great Migration (they could come to the Roman Empire but had to defend it)


Slide 31 - Tekstslide

Slide 32 - Tekstslide

3.3 Graeco-Roman culture
The collapse of the Roman Empire
  • The Western Empire fell due to this migration (plundering, new kingdoms etc.)
  • Collecting taxes was hard and the empire wasn't united
  • 476: Last Western emperor was overthrown 
  • Start of the Middle Ages

Slide 33 - Tekstslide

Slide 34 - Tekstslide

3.4 Christianity in the Roman Empire  
Learning objectives
  • You can explain with examples what the difference is between monotheistic and polytheistic religions.
  • You can explain how Christianity started and give the key features of Christian belief.
  • You can explain how Christianity developed in late Antiquity.

Slide 35 - Tekstslide

Slide 36 - Tekstslide

3.4 Christianity in the Roman Empire  
Belief in one God
  • The people who lived in Judea (a Roman province; part of Israel) believed in Judaism. A very different belief compared to other religions 
  • The Jews believed in one god (monotheism). The Romans were polytheistic

 

Slide 37 - Tekstslide

3.4 Christianity in the Roman Empire  
Belief in one god
  • The Jews didn't want to worship the emperor as a god. 
  • The Jews had holy books (how they should live). They believed that God would give them a country (Israel). They believed someone would come and free them from the foreign rulers 

Slide 38 - Tekstslide

3.4 Christianity in the Roman Empire  
Christianity
  • Jesus of Nazareth lived in Judea; he believed people needed to lead a better life. 
  • People had to be charitable, tolerant, humble and forgiving
  • Some Jews saw Jesus as the man God had sent to free them 
  • 'Christ' means 'high priest' or 'king'
  • Christianity started 

 

Slide 39 - Tekstslide

3.4 Christianity in the Roman Empire  
Christianity
  • Some thought Jesus was a threat --> he was arrested and crucified. Some believed he came back to life after his death and rose to heaven
  • Their holy book: the Bible
  • People travelled through the Roman Empire to spread the religion
  • Paul of Tarsus


Slide 40 - Tekstslide

3.4 Christianity in the Roman Empire  

Slide 41 - Tekstslide

3.4 Christianity in the Roman Empire
Christianity in the Roman Empire
  • When people started to convert to Christianity the Romans didn't see the group as 'harmless'' anymore
  • Christians also refused to worship the Roman emperor as god --> Christianity was forbidden 
  • Emperor Nero was harsh to Christians (crucified, burnt to death, thrown to the lions)
  • Still, Christianity grew immensely
 


Slide 42 - Tekstslide

Slide 43 - Tekstslide

3.4 Christianity in the Roman Empire
Christianity in the Roman Empire
  • Constantine the Great stopped the persecution. Christians could know worship their god in public
  • After his Death the Church became more powerful. Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the state religion

Slide 44 - Tekstslide

Group of peoples who originally lived in what are now Germany and the Netherlands
Part of the Roman Empire that was governed from Italy and collapsed in 476.
A Roman citizen who was poor and got support from the rich and powerful
People that moved from northern and eastern Europe to the south and the west 
Belief in one god
The highest-ranked administrator in the Christian (Catholic) Church
proletarian
Germanic peoples
Great Migration
Western Roman Empire
Monotheism
Pope

Slide 45 - Sleepvraag