1.1e Particles in the atom and atomic radius

AS Level Chemistry 9701
Topic 1.1 Particles in the atom and atomic radius
29 August 2023
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AS Level Chemistry 9701
Topic 1.1 Particles in the atom and atomic radius
29 August 2023

Slide 1 - Tekstslide


Describe how you feel right now 
using an emoji.
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Slide 2 - Poll

  • define and use the term first ionisation energy, IE1  
  • explain that ionisation energies are due to the attraction between the nucleus and the outer electron  
  • identify and explain the trends in ionisation energies across a period and down a group of the Periodic Table  
I intend to:
29 August 2023, Tuesday

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

  • explain the factors influencing the ionisation energies of elements in terms of nuclear charge, atomic/ionic radius, shielding by inner shells and sub-shells and spin-pair repulsion  
  • construct equations to represent first, second and subsequent ionisation energies  
  • identify and explain the variation in successive ionisation energies of an element
I intend to:
29 August 2023, Tuesday

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

  • deduce the electronic configurations of elements using successive ionisation energy data  
  • deduce the position of an element in the Periodic Table using successive ionisation energy data.    
I intend to:
29 August 2023, Tuesday

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

AS Level Chemistry 9701
Topic 1.1 Particles in the atom and atomic radius
29 August 2023

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

  • Write the noble gas electron configurations or shorthand EC of Elements 1 to 36.
Review
29 August 2023, Tuesday
timer
10:00

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Review
29 August 2023, Tuesday
REMEMBER ūüí≠
The Periodic Table is split up into four main blocks depending on their electronic configuration:
  • s-block elements (Have their valence electron(s) in an s-orbital)
  • p-block elements (Have their valence electron(s) in a p-orbital)
  • d-block elements (Have their valence electron(s) in a d-orbital)
  • f-block elements (Have their valence electron(s) in an f-orbital)

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Review
29 August 2023, Tuesday
Exemption to the Rule: Electronic configurations

Chromium and Copper have the following electron configurations, which are different to what you may expect:

Cr = [Ar] 3d5 4s1 not  [Ar] 3d4 4s2
Cu = [Ar] 3d10 4snot  [Ar] 3d9 4s2

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Review
29 August 2023, Tuesday
  • Free radical - a species with one or more unpaired electrons.

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

AS Level Chemistry 9701
Topic 1.1 Particles in the atom and atomic radius
29 August 2023

Slide 11 - Tekstslide


Is energy needed to remove 
valence electrons?
Yes.
No.

Slide 12 - Poll

Study this!
29 August 2023, Tuesday
Ca (g)  ‚Üí  Ca+(g)   +   e-       
          
IE1 = + 590 kJ mol-   @298 K , 101 kPa
WALT: Define and use the term first ionisation energy, IE1 

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Study this!
29 August 2023, Tuesday
Ca (g)  ‚Üí  Ca+(g)   +   e-       
          
IE1 = + 590 kJ mol-   @298 K , 101 kPa
  • In a statement form, what does the equation tell you? 
WALT: Define and use the term first ionisation energy, IE1 

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Study this!
29 August 2023, Tuesday
Ca (g)  ‚Üí  Ca+(g)   +   e-       
          

WALT: Define and use the term first ionisation energy, IE1 
  • The first ionisation energy of Calcium is the energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of the gaseous Calcium.

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Slide 16 - Link

Ionisation Energy
29 August 2023, Tuesday
D E F I N I T I O N
  • Ionisation energy - the amount of energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous ions. 
  •  measured under standard conditions @298 K , 101 kPa
  • unit of measure - kilojoules per mole (kJ mol-)

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

First Ionisation Energy
29 August 2023, Tuesday
E X A M P L E
  • Ca (g) ‚Üí Ca+(g) + e-         IE1 = + 590 kJ mol-   @298 K , 101 kPa
      
  • The first ionisation energy of Calcium is the energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of the gaseous Calcium to form one mole of 1+ ions.

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Attractive Force in an atom
29 August 2023, Tuesday
WALT: Explain that ionisation energies are due to the attraction between the nucleus and the outer electron  

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

Attractive Force in an atom
29 August 2023, Tuesday
  • Can you break this attractive force?
WALT: Explain that ionisation energies are due to the attraction between the nucleus and the outer electron  

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

Attractive Force in an atom
29 August 2023, Tuesday
  • Can you break this attractive force?
  • ionisation energy
WALT: Explain that ionisation energies are due to the attraction between the nucleus and the outer electron  

Slide 21 - Tekstslide

  • Nuclear charge
  • Shielding
  • Atomic or ionic radius
  • Spin-pair repulsion
Factors affecting the magnitude of ionisation energy
29 August 2023, Tuesday
WALT: Explain the factors influencing the ionisation energies of elements in terms of nuclear charge, atomic/ionic radius, shielding by inner shells and sub-shells and spin-pair repulsion    

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

  • increases with increasing proton number
  • stronger attractive force between the protons and electrons
  • greater nuclear charge = higher ionisation energy needed
Factor 1- Nuclear charge
29 August 2023, Tuesday
WALT: Explain the factors influencing the ionisation energies of elements in terms of nuclear charge, atomic/ionic radius, shielding by inner shells and sub-shells and spin-pair repulsion    

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

  • more shells = more shielding effect due to inter-electron repulsion
  • more shielding = weaker attractive force
  • more shielding = requires lower ionisation energy
Factor 2 - Shielding
29 August 2023, Tuesday
WALT: Explain the factors influencing the ionisation energies of elements in terms of nuclear charge, atomic/ionic radius, shielding by inner shells and sub-shells and spin-pair repulsion    

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

  • Which has the most shielding effect?

Slide 26 - Tekstslide


Which has the most shielding effect?

Slide 27 - Poll

  • larger radius = outer electrons are farther away from the nucleus
  • greater distance from the nucleus = weaker attractive force
  • weaker attractive force = less ionisation energy needed 
Factor 3 - Atomic or ionic Radius 
29 August 2023, Tuesday
WALT: Explain the factors influencing the ionisation energies of elements in terms of nuclear charge, atomic/ionic radius, shielding by inner shells and sub-shells and spin-pair repulsion    

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

Slide 29 - Tekstslide

  • Spin-pair repulsion happens when the electron being removed is spin-paired with another electron in the same orbital.
  •  Non-spin-paired electrons are more difficult to remove, requiring more ionisation energy.
Factor 4 - Spin-pair repulsion
29 August 2023, Tuesday
WALT: Explain the factors influencing the ionisation energies of elements in terms of nuclear charge, atomic/ionic radius, shielding by inner shells and sub-shells and spin-pair repulsion    

Slide 30 - Tekstslide

AS Level Chemistry 9701
Topic 1.1 Particles in the atom and atomic radius
29 August 2023

Slide 31 - Tekstslide

  • Using the given chart on the first, second, third, and fourth ionisation energies of elements, construct a bar graph.
  • The x-axis is the element in symbol with atomic number, and the y-axis is the first ionisation energy, in kJ mol-.
  • Share your graphs with the class.
Week 4 - Activity A (Paired)
29 August 2023, Tuesday
timer
10:00
WALT: Identify and explain the trends in ionisation energies across a period and down a group of the Periodic Table  

Slide 32 - Tekstslide

Conclusions
29 August 2023, Tuesday
  • Ionisation energies show periodicity.
Across a period 
  • nuclear charge increases
  • atomic radius decreases
  • shielding remains constant
  • gets harder to remove an electron
  • ionisation energy increases
WALT: Identify and explain the trends in ionisation energies across a period and down a group of the Periodic Table  

Slide 33 - Tekstslide

Conclusions
29 August 2023, Tuesday
Down a group
  • nuclear charge increases
  • atomic radius increases
  • distance from the nucleus increases
  • shielding increases
  • gets easier to remove an electron
  • ionisation energy decreases
WALT: Identify and explain the trends in ionisation energies across a period and down a group of the Periodic Table  

Slide 34 - Tekstslide

Conclusions
29 August 2023, Tuesday
Sudden decrease in IE
  • He to Li
  • Ne to Na
Slight decrease in IE
  • Be to B
  • N to O
WALT: Identify and explain the trends in ionisation energies across a period and down a group of the Periodic Table  

Slide 35 - Tekstslide

Slide 36 - Tekstslide

AS Level Chemistry 9701
Topic 1.1 Particles in the atom and atomic radius
29 August 2023

Slide 37 - Tekstslide


Which is easier to remove?
valence e- from a neutral atom
valence e- from an gaseous ion

Slide 38 - Poll

Successive ionisation energy of elements
29 August 2023, Tuesday
  • increases
WALT: Construct equations to represent first, second and subsequent ionisation energies  
Ca0 (g) ‚Üí Ca+(g)   +  e-

Ca+(g) ‚Üí Ca2+(g) + 2e-

Slide 39 - Tekstslide

Successive ionisation energy of elements
29 August 2023, Tuesday
  • increases
WALT: Identify and explain the variation in successive ionisation energies of an element

Slide 40 - Tekstslide

Successive ionisation energy of elements
29 August 2023, Tuesday
  • increases
WALT: Identify and explain the variation in successive ionisation energies of an element

Slide 41 - Tekstslide

AS Level Chemistry 9701
Topic 1.1 Particles in the atom and atomic radius
29 August 2023

Slide 42 - Tekstslide

Ionisation Energies and Electronic Configuration
29 August 2023, Tuesday
WALT: Deduce the electronic configurations of elements using successive ionisation energy data  
Successive ionisation data can be used to:

  • Predict or confirm the simple electronic configuration of elements
  • Confirm the number of electrons in the outer shell of an element
  • Deduce the Group an element belongs to the Periodic Table

Slide 43 - Tekstslide

Ionisation Energies and Electronic Configuration
WALT: Deduce the electronic configurations of elements using successive ionisation energy data
Deduce the position of an element in the Periodic Table using successive ionisation energy data   

Slide 44 - Tekstslide

Self-Assessment for Learning
29 August 2023, Tuesday
T O  D O:
  • Identify two ideas you do not understand quite well in our sessions.
  • Ask someone who can explain and write the explanations in your notebook.
  • Verify your learning from a classmate by sharing it with the teacher.
timer
5:00

Slide 45 - Tekstslide

AS Level Chemistry 9701
Topic 1.1 Particles in the atom and atomic radius
31 August 2023

Slide 46 - Tekstslide