The Horror, The Horror V4

The Horror, The Horror
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
EngelsMiddelbare schoolvwoLeerjaar 6

In deze les zitten 36 slides, met interactieve quizzen en tekstslides.

time-iconLesduur is: 30 min

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The Horror, The Horror
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Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Welcome to our workshop about Heart of Darkness.
Please join us by going to and entering the code (preferably use a second device)
7 seconds:
An example of a HORROR!
(write or use picture)

Slide 2 - Open vraag

First have students think about the difference between holiday and horror.
7 seconds:
An example of a HOLIDAY!
(write or use picture)

Slide 3 - Open vraag

First have students think about the difference between holiday and horror.
Imagine going here: hundreds of miles away from the nearest city, no electricity, water, tools... holiday or horror?

Slide 4 - Quizvraag

How do the students feel about:
  • a dark jungle
  • primitive living
  • Africa

Heart of Darkness
  • three lessons (60 mins)
  • target group: 6V (level B2)

  • students are able to discuss what they have read (examenblad)
  • students can express an opinion and argue their case
  • students are able to think critically about a topic
  • students show awareness of the impact of colonialism
  • students can make a character analysis based on the readings of the book

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

  • lesson series 3 lessons book Heart of Darkness
  • pre-while-after reading
  • usable online distance learning lesson
  • target 6v - level B2 -examenblad
  • discuss general goals related to novel
  • Congo - colonialism
  • Kurtz - character analysis villain
  • Opinion forming - accountability actions Kurtz
  • all activities on slides - some only to show you/some to join
Lesson 1 - goals
At the end of this lesson you:  
  • can explain what colonialism is.
  • can give examples of what happened in the Congo.
  • can use quotes from a written text to support your opinion. 

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

This is the "what" of lesson 1.
Before reading lesson 1 
  • bell ringer
  • colonialism introduction
  • Leopold II video and quiz
  • reading activity 
  • homework
  • exit ticket

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

This is the how of lesson one. We already did the "bell ringer" activity. Let's proceed to the next ones.
Colonialism: interactive mind map
activity activates knowledge that students may already have about Africa and Colonialsim

Reading activity: fragments from chapter 1 (answer questions about Marlow and colonialism)

Homework: read the first chapter (Marlow and keywords, Kurtz)
  • Congo
  • colonialism
  • Belgian king Leopold II
  • atrocities (torture, slavery)
  • skulls

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Slide about the video: Interactive video with built-in questions > introduces colonialism and the Congo, provides a setting for the novel. 

Click the link for the actual video.

After that: interactive classroom question
Write down in a couple of words: what do you remember from the video about Leopold II and the Congo? What struck you most?
How do you see colonialism?
On the next slide, please drag and drop the pictures to the correct box. 

What does colonialism look like? 

Do the drag and drop activity on the next slide.

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Purpose: further process the information about colonialism and its implications

Slide 10 - Sleepvraag

Which pictures would you link to "colonised", and which ones to "independent"?
Heart of Darkness
  • written by Joseph Conrad
  • set in colonial Congo in Africa
  • main character Marlow recalls when he went on a commercial mission on the river Congo.

  • reading project
  • three lessons and homework

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

  • Link colonialism to novel late 19th century Congo. 
  • explain the setup of the lesson series
  • Students will read most of the book on their own.
First encounter with Marlow
  • Students click the link and read the assignment. 
  • They listen to the teacher reading out the text, read along.
  • They answer the questions (first alone, then discuss).
2000 years ago: Romans "conquered" Britain

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

This assignment invites students to reflect on colonialism and provides a first encounter with Marlow.
Why this fragment and not starting from the beginning? Focus on colonialism, first exercise in using text for evidence. 
  • students in random groups of three to four
  • teacher reads out text fragment in class (possibility to explain)
  • main character Marlow philosophises about conquer and colonists. 
  • after listening, students start answering the questions .

Homework Assignment

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

  • do:  read chapter 1, answer questions
  • links to lesson 2 class activity
  • expresses Marlow's ideas about colonialism, slaves, trade, Congo
  • introduces Kurtz - link to next lessons

Exit ticket
Name two things that you've learned today about either the novel, colonialism or Congo.

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Students would actually be presented an interactive slide enabling them to type their answers right away.
Lesson 2: Goals
At the end of this lesson you:  
  • can collaborate with others to form one opinion based on evidence from the book.
  • can write a character analysis based on evidence from the book.

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

The "what" of this lesson.
While reading lesson 2
  • start-up activity
  • discuss homework in groups
  • character analysis assignment
  • homework task

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

  • start: in-class interactive question, "Describe in two sentences what Chapter 1 is about - according to you" 
  • discuss homework in groups.
  • After that a classroom character analysis-assignment is set. 
  • After finishing and discussing the character analysis, the teacher sets the homework assignment, which basically is a continuation of the homework started in lesson 1.
  • If there is time, students can start the homework assignment.
Discuss homework
  • students will get into groups of four (roles)
  • students discuss the homework assignment

Their task is to answer:
  • What is Marlow’s opinion about colonists, trade, slaves and the Congo ?
  • What is said about “Kurtz”?

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

10 to 15 minutes. 
Students share their homework notes, then decide what they find most important and what they conclude. Students get a sheet of paper (or use their notebooks)
Students will be assigned roles to stimulate positive mutual dependency
(Effectief leren p 96.) 

* note-taker: writes down the conclusions
* group leader: makes sure all questions are answered and everybody gets their say
* reporter: the one who will tell the class about the group's findings
* judge: the one who is allowed to ask the teacher for advice in case of questions or disagreement 
Character Analysis
What is a character analysis? 
  • an evaluation of a character in a story

Why do we do a character analysis?
  • to promote critical thinking 
  • to form a conclusion based on evidence

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Explain that we analyse characters in our lives or when watching series and movies.

What is character analysis?
What they are like?
look at the actions they do, how they are shown/ portrayed in the story, how do other characters react to things they say or do.
What part they play in the story?
protagonist/ antagonist
What conflicts do they come across in the story?
internal or external conflict

Student support:How to write a character analysis?

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

Analyse Marlow
  • steps 1-5 in pairs - make notes
  • individual analysis
  • evaluate each other's analysis in groups with role swap
Mutiple intelligences:
  • create a mindmap 
  • teachers brings props and asks students to dress up as Marlow and take a picture

Homework Assignment

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

  • finish book
  • take notes (complete worksheet)
dual purpose:
  • acquainting students with character analysis 
  • preparing them for the activities in the final lesson.

  • Level 1: Imagine you are Marlow or the Russian. Make a character analysis of Kurtz from your point of view. Rules: You may only use the notes where your character was present/ involved. Explain your opinion in your own words. Give arguments/ quotes from the book to support your opinion. 
  • Level 2 (Differentiation/ Extra challenge): Write down a character analysis of Kurtz from both Marlow’s point of view and the Russian’s point of view.  They will have to use their quotes for the assignment
  • Insert part of the assignmentdescribe Kurtz from point of view characters (notes scaffolding) - provide students with feedback, support argument. Check understanding.
differentiation: the letter assignment for lower level students.

Lesson 3: Goals
At the end of this lesson you:  
  • can analyse evidence extracted from the novel.
  • can form an opinion based on well supported arguments from the novel. 

Slide 21 - Tekstslide

The "what" of this lesson
Lesson 3: after reading
  • warm-up horror quiz
  • recap
  • trial
  • verdict

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

The third lesson starts with a warm-up quiz about horrors, aim of which is to stress what horrors Kurtz has committed, and referring to his last words "the horror, the horror".
It is followed by a recap question similar to that from lesson two. 
Then the students get into groups to give a verdict: can we hold Kurtz accountable for the horrors he committed?
tHe HORROR wArm-uP aRe yOu rEADy?

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

  • To bring back to memory the horrors mentioned in the book.
  • teacher can choose to use the outcome to divide your groups. 
  • Or class discussion, e.g. who is responsible for those horrors? 
Would you rather...
  • Cut of someone's hand?
  • Cut of someone's head
  • Shoot Someone?
Would you rather...
  • Scrape rubber off bodies?
  • Hunt for elephants?
  • Collect hostages from villages?
Would you rather...
  • Go insane?
  • Be caught by natives and eaten?
  • Catch malaria and die?
Would you rather...
  • March through the jungle on foot?
  • Float down the river by boat?
  • Be carried in a palanquin (chair) by tribe members?
Would you rather...
  • Pull ivory out of elephants to decorate your house?
  • Put heads on stakes to decorate your garden?
  • Scrape the flesh off skulls and bones to decorate your garden?

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

Follow-up activity: classroom question (interactive slide)
You have read Heart of Darkness. What struck you as "horror"? Try to illustrate your answer with an example.
What do you think it means to be accountable or not accountable? 

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

Introduce trial
Can Kurtz be held accountable? 
You are ALWAYS accountable for your own actions no matter what.

Slide 26 - Quizvraag

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You can't be held accountable if you are following orders.

Slide 27 - Quizvraag

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Kurtz: accountable or not accountable? 

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

Introduce trial
Can Kurtz be held accountable? 
link: naturalism/psychological determinism.
Was Kurtz ultimately changed by the jungle? At first he wanted to bring civilization to the natives, as his painting shows, but in the end, he changed to wanting to "exterminate all the brutes!" 
Is behaviour of individuals shaped by their environment? 
So in how far can Kurtz be held accountable for what he did?

A trial (V6 version)
  • imagine Kurtz was being tried for the horrors he committed
  • in groups students will be assigned a judgement which they have to defend and support with arguments
    - Kurtz was accountable for his actions
    - Kurtz was not accountable for his actions
  • after each group presented their verdict,
    the whole class 

Slide 29 - Tekstslide

-work in groups (same as homework of divided using quiz)
- students use notes
-in 15 minutes  try Kurtz (prove he is accountable or unaccountable ) 
form opinion -present to class
Kurtz's trial - assignment

Slide 30 - Tekstslide

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Kurtz's trial - student tool

Slide 31 - Tekstslide

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Kurtz's trial - support notes

Slide 32 - Tekstslide

Ready-made notes are provided for those students who struggled with their note-taking. 
Two options:
- A 1 character per group or 
- B 1 character per person in a group
- if you're using option B, suggestion would be to put in a "placemat-activity" format to ensure equal participation of all students.
Kurtz's Trial - Compact - What's your verdict?
  • REMEMBER the Horrors
  • READ the quotes
  • DETERMINE Kurtz's fate 

Slide 33 - Tekstslide

We don't have time to do the whole trial. But to give you an idea of what we want to do:
* read the quotes
* decide: accountable or not
* vote
* explain your choice
Simplified Trial Quotes
The Russian: This man suffered too much. He hated all this, and somehow he couldn't get away. When I had a chance, I begged him to try and leave while there was time; I offered to go back with him. And he would say yes, and then he would remain; go off on another ivory hunt; disappear for weeks; forget himself amongst these people--forget himself--you know.' 'Why! he's mad,' I said. He protested indignantly. Mr...
Marlow: 'My ivory.' Oh yes, I heard him. 'My Intended, my ivory, my station, my river, my--' everything belonged to him. It made me hold my breath in expectation of hearing the wilderness burst into a prodigious peal of laughter that would shake the fixed stars in their places. Everything belonged to him—but that was a trifle. The thing was to know what he be longed to, how many powers of darkness claimed him for their own. That was the reflection that made you creepy all over. It was impossible--it was not good for one either--trying to imagine. He had taken a high seat amongst the devils of the land--I mean literally. You can't understand. […] 

Slide 34 - Tekstslide

Due to lack of time: peers get to read 2 different quotes and vote on Kurtz. 
What is your verdict?
Accountable. He didn't receive orders to commit cruelties.
Accountable. He could have left at any point but he chose to stay.
Unaccountable. The circumstances forced his hand.
Unaccountable. He was insane.

Slide 35 - Quizvraag

Choose your option. Please remember which one it was - you'll need it for the next question.

After this question: students will have to support their answer (interactive slide).

Discussion with students: link to determinism / naturalism. 
The offering was barred by a black bank of clouds, and the tranquil waterway leading to the uttermost ends of the earth flowed sombre under an overcast sky- seemed to lead into the heart of an immerse darkness.

Or to rephrase:
We will be happy to answer your questions now.

Slide 36 - Tekstslide

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