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Modals 1

Modals 1
Modals or modal auxilaries are helpful verbs we add to express certain things, like obligation, permission or prohibition. In Dutch we call them: 'hulpwerkwoorden'
You probably already know these verbs, but maybe not when we have to use them. Have a look:

I must drive on the left in England
We have to get out of the museum before it closes at 5 pm
You should try a call your mum, she is probably worried.
We ought to go home early today.
Could I borrow a pen, miss?
You may leave the classroom early.
You can't go in there, all the walls have just been painted!


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In deze les zitten 19 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 2 videos.

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Modals 1
Modals or modal auxilaries are helpful verbs we add to express certain things, like obligation, permission or prohibition. In Dutch we call them: 'hulpwerkwoorden'
You probably already know these verbs, but maybe not when we have to use them. Have a look:

I must drive on the left in England
We have to get out of the museum before it closes at 5 pm
You should try a call your mum, she is probably worried.
We ought to go home early today.
Could I borrow a pen, miss?
You may leave the classroom early.
You can't go in there, all the walls have just been painted!


Slide 1 - Tekstslide

I'd love to come to the cinema but I _____ hand in this assignment tomorrow.
A
must
B
have to
C
can

Slide 2 - Quizvraag

You _____ hit your sister again! Do you understand?
A
mustn't
B
can
C
don't have to

Slide 3 - Quizvraag

_____ I borrow your black dress tonight, please?

A
Can
B
Must
C
Mustn't

Slide 4 - Quizvraag

You _____ memorise the whole thing. Just try to remember the key points.
A
mustn't
B
have to
C
don't have to

Slide 5 - Quizvraag

You _____ park your car here for a maximum of 30 minutes.
A
must
B
don't have to
C
can

Slide 6 - Quizvraag

Strong obligation (1)
Must:   When? In present and future situations
- The speaker is the one who imposes the obligation. In other words he is the one who tells somebody what they must do. 
- You can also use must for laws. 

  You must clean up this mess at once! 
  You must stop when the light turns red. 

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Strong obligation (2)
Have to / have got to (informal use only)   When? In present and future situations
- The speaker is not the one who imposes the obligation. In other words somebody else tells somebody what they must do. 
Example:  The teacher told me  that I have to write down these words.
  
Had to   when? In past situations and in 'reported speech' (indirecte rede)
- The past tense of have to. Someone else imposes the obligation.
Example:  My dad said that I had to come home early. 
I had to finish my meal before I was allowed to leave the table. 

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Strong obligation (3)
Other ways to express obligation (without modals): 
- To make someone do something 
- To be compulsory 

Examples:  
The teacher made the pupils write down the entire sentence.     
English is compulsory at secondary school. 

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Weak obligation 
Should /ought to    
- Present and future situations
- Often used for criticism or regret, because an action didn’t happen.
I really should visit granny more often. 

Should have + past participle / Ought to have + past participle 
- Past situations
I ought to have told John the truth sooner. 

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Asking for and giving permission 

Can – the word you usually use for permission 
Could -  is more polite  (and past tense of can)
May – is formal 
Examples: 
Can I go to the toilet, please? 
Could I ask you for some assistance? 
May I bother you for some salt? 


Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Other ways to express permission (no modals):  
- To allow someone to ..  
- To permit someone to ..  
- To let someone ..  

Examples:  
Dad allowed me to buy a new pair of jeans.  
The police permitted Jon to leave the prison.  
I let the kids play in the sandbox, even though it rained.  

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Prohibition (Dutch: verbod)
 Mustn’t/ can’t  
- Present and future 
- You use this when something is forbidden 
You can’t smoke in restaurants in Holland
They musn't jump of that bridge, the water below is too shallow!

Was not to / couldn’t 
- Past expressions of prohibition
I couldn’t go into that road because there were road works. 
I wasn’t to open the presents before Christmas morning. 

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Other ways to express prohibition (no modals): 
- To forbid someone to .. 
- To ban someone from …-ing something 
- To not allow someone to … something 
- To not permit someone to … something 
- To not let someone … something 
- Imperative (Dutch: gebiedende wijs) 
 
Examples: 
Mother forbids me to speak to strangers. 
The prisoner was banned from going to his dad’s funeral. 
James wasn’t allowed to use a knife. 
The teacher didn’t permit us to use a dictionary. 
Dad doesn’t let me drive his car to school. 
Don’t tease your brother! 

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Extra exercise
Go over 1 or both of the exercises below to practice with the modals of obligation, necessity & permission.

When you are done, show the teacher your results. Then you can move on to do exercises 1-6 in your workbook.

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Unit 3.2
Now, do exercises 1-5 + grammar extra 
When you are done, do exercise 6. It is a Use of English exercise (part 4, Key Word Transformation), so make sure you revise what you have to do here before starting by looking at the explanation in Exam Folder 1 again.

If you want to know more about the grammar of this unit, or perhaps prefer a Dutch explanation, watch the videos on the next slides.

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

Slide 17 - Video

Slide 18 - Video

Slide 19 - Tekstslide