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Visual ArtSecondary Education

In deze les zitten 79 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 5 videos.

time-iconLesduur is: 60 min

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What do you
know about Romanesque?

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What is Romanesque architecture?
An architectural style that developed in the Renaissance period
A style of architecture that emphasizes simplicity and minimalism
An architectural style that originated in ancient Rome
An architectural style that emerged in medieval Europe

Slide 21 - Quizvraag

What are the main features of Romanesque architecture?
Open floor plans, large windows, and extensive use of steel
Thick walls, rounded arches, and small windows
Tall spires, pointed arches, and stained glass windows
Ornate decorations, flying buttresses, and domed roofs

Slide 22 - Quizvraag

What influenced the rise of Romanesque architecture?
The influence of ancient Greek architecture
The availability of advanced building materials
The desire for artistic expression and grandeur
The need for larger and more fortified churches

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Which statement is true about St. Foy Conques?
It is featured in several films.
It attracts numerous pilgrims every year.
It is a popular wedding venue.
It is located on a hilltop.

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What makes St. Foy Conques unique?
It is made entirely of limestone.
It is surrounded by beautiful gardens.
It has an ornate golden statue of a woman.
It has a bell tower with seven bells.

Slide 34 - Quizvraag

What is the interesting fact about St. Foy Conques?
It was built in the 12th century.
It contains a famous relic of a martyred saint.
It is known for its Gothic architecture.
It is the tallest building in the town.

Slide 35 - Quizvraag

What material was primarily used for the sculptures in St. Foy Conques?

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What is the theme of the sculpture and designs in St. Foy Conques?
Natural beauty
Historical events
Political power
Religious devotion

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The Last Judgement

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Christ is in the center with Paradise depicted on one side and the terrifying mouth of hell on the other

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In the kingdom of Hell the devil is wearing a crown & seated on a throne- he hands out punishment according to the severity of the sins.

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Inscription in Latin:
'O sinners, if you do not change your ways, know that you will suffer a dreadful fate'

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The organisation of the Church
  • Catholic Church was well organised. 
  • Each city had one or more churches with their own priests.
  • Churches in a particular area form a diocese (bisdom), governed by a bishop.
  • Most important church was the cathedral.
  • Monasteries weren't governed by bishops, but had to obey the pope.
Gothic architecture (later)
architecture (first)

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Built-  mid 12th Century.
Held-  the relic of St Lazarus.
Hoped- it would be a huge pilgrimage destination.

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The main core of the church and its magnificent sculptures are Romanesque, although several Gothic-style additions, including the choir and great spire, were added later after a fire. 

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The Tympanum: The Last Judgement 
This is probably the most recognisable of all Romanesque church sculptures.
The large figure of Christ is portrayed as an impassive judge, placed in a mandorla.

The narrative starts on the lintel below the tympanum. Figures rise from their coffins at the sound of the trumpets and are guided by an angel towards St Peter, with a large key.

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Pilgrims, one with a cross for Jerusalem on his satchel, the other a shell for St James, ascend upwards to heaven, but an angel with a flaming sword turns others away. They are bent over and ashamed, with mouths open in anguish. 
Farther along they become even more curled in on themselves and their expressions more exaggerated. One is grabbed by two claw-like hands.

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1. How would you describe the architectural style of the St. Lazare Autun Cathedral, and what elements make it distinctive?

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2. What are some of the prominent sculptural details found on the façade of the cathedral, and how do they contribute to the overall artistic impact of the building?

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3. Explore the religious and symbolic iconography present in the sculptures of the St. Lazare Autun Cathedral. How does it reflect the beliefs and values of the time it was built?

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4. What materials and techniques were used in the construction and ornamentation of the cathedral's façade, and how do they showcase the craftsmanship?

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Vézelay Cathedral 
The tympanum of Vézelay Cathedral is a sculpted relief located above the central entrance portal of the church. It is a masterpiece of Romanesque sculpture and is considered one of the finest examples of this art form in France. The tympanum depicts scenes from the Last Judgment, a common subject in Romanesque art.

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Slide 66 - Video

Key details about the tympanum:
Last Judgment: The central theme of the tympanum is the Last Judgment, which is a common subject in medieval Christian art. It depicts the second coming of Christ, the resurrection of the dead, and the final judgment of souls.

Christ in Majesty: At the center of the tympanum is a representation of Christ in Majesty, seated on a throne and surrounded by symbols of the Four Evangelists (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John).
Angels and Apostles: Flanking Christ are angels and apostles, each with their distinct attributes and symbolism.
Damned and Saved Souls: Below Christ, the tympanum shows the separation of the damned and saved souls. Saved souls are depicted being welcomed into heaven by angels, while the damned are led away by demons.

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Elaborate Detail: The sculpture on the tympanum is highly detailed and intricate, showcasing the skill of the artisans who created it. The figures are portrayed with emotion and realism.

Spiritual Symbolism: Like many Romanesque tympana, the Vézelay Cathedral tympanum serves a didactic purpose, teaching viewers about Christian theology and morality. It was meant to inspire awe and encourage piety among those entering the cathedral.
Restoration: Over the centuries, the tympanum has undergone several restorations to preserve its beauty and structural integrity.
The tympanum of Vézelay Cathedral is a significant work of art and a testament to the artistic and religious devotion of the people of the Romanesque period. It is an important attraction for tourists and pilgrims who visit the cathedral to admire its architecture and the rich symbolism of its sculptures.

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The Bayeux Tapestry
Is a remarkable piece of medieval art and history that provides a detailed visual account of the events leading up to and including the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. 

Creation and Origin:
The Bayeux Tapestry is not technically a tapestry but an embroidered cloth, measuring approximately 70 meters (230 feet) long and 50 centimeters (20 inches) wide.
It is believed to have been created in the late 11th century, likely commissioned by Bishop Odo of Bayeux, who was a half-brother of William the Conqueror.

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Subject Matter:
The primary subject of the tapestry is the Norman Conquest of England, specifically the events leading up to the Battle of Hastings (1066) and the battle itself.
The narrative begins with the death of King Edward the Confessor and Harold Godwinson's ascension to the English throne, leading to tensions with William, Duke of Normandy.
It chronicles the various stages of the conquest, including the famous Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it.

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Artistic Style:

The Bayeux Tapestry employs a unique style of embroidery known as "opus anglicanum," which was popular in England at the time.
It is primarily embroidered using colored woolen thread on a linen background, with various shades and textures of thread used to create depth and detail.
The imagery is a mix of realistic and stylized elements, and it utilizes a continuous narrative style with Latin inscriptions throughout.

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Historical Significance:

The Bayeux Tapestry is an invaluable historical document that provides insights into the clothing, armor, weapons, ships, architecture, and daily life of the 11th century.
It is also a crucial source for understanding the events of the Norman Conquest, as it offers a Norman perspective on the invasion.
While it is considered biased in favor of the Normans, it still provides a detailed account of the events leading to the conquest.

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Preservation and Display:

The tapestry has been carefully preserved over the centuries and is currently housed in the Bayeux Tapestry Museum (Musée de la Tapisserie de Bayeux) in Bayeux, Normandy, France.

It has undergone extensive conservation efforts to ensure its long-term preservation and is displayed in a dimly lit, temperature-controlled environment to protect the delicate fabric.

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Historical Debates & Cultural Legacy:

The Bayeux Tapestry has been a subject of historical debate and scholarly interpretation. Some details of the narrative and the identities of certain figures are still a matter of discussion among historians.
Cultural Legacy:
The Bayeux Tapestry continues to be a symbol of the Norman Conquest and a source of fascination for historians, artists, and the public alike.
It has inspired numerous books, films, and adaptations, further cementing its place in popular culture.
Overall, the Bayeux Tapestry is a masterpiece of medieval art and a vital historical document that offers a vivid and engaging portrayal of a pivotal moment in English and Norman history.

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