H4 grammar revision - Units 7-9

H4 - Grammar Units 7-9
  • 7: Gerunds and infinitives
  • 9: Modals of speculation and deduction
  • 9: Grammar extra: order of adjectives
  • Revision and practice
  • Use of English practice
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
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H4 - Grammar Units 7-9
  • 7: Gerunds and infinitives
  • 9: Modals of speculation and deduction
  • 9: Grammar extra: order of adjectives
  • Revision and practice
  • Use of English practice

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Unit 7: gerunds and infinitives
There are times where we can use a verb as a noun. When this happens, we call this particular verb a gerund. Sometimes, instead of the gerund, we have to use to + infinitive
In Dutch, you see this in sentences like: Zingen is haar hobby / Het beklimmen van Kilimanjaro is een droom van mij  -   Singing is her hobby. / Climbing mount Kilimanjaro is a dream of mine.

A gerund/to + infinitive can take the place of the subject (onderwerp), direct object (lijd voorwerp) or indirect object (meewerk. voorwerp) in a sentence.

Subject: Listening to music is what I love to do.
Object (direct or indirect) : I was thinking about meeting them. / Jonathan considered telling him everything.

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

When to use gerund
You use a gerund (-ing form):
  • after a preposition
  • after a phrasal verb
  • after verbs that indicate likes/dislikes: like, dislike, love,
    hate, fancy, envy
  • after verbs that indicate using the senses: see, watch, hear, smell, feel
  • after certain expressions: it's no use, it's not worth, there's no point
  • after certain other verbs like: start-stop, avoid, miss, suggest, consider, imagine

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

When to use to + infinitive
You use the to-infinitive only as an object, never as a subject in the sentence:
  • after certain verbs that express wishes or orders : afford, agree, ask, choose, help, hope, want, intend, pretend, promise, expect, prefer, used to
  • after certain adjectives: difficult, possible, happy, certain, simple
  • after verb + somebody + to do + something: ask, encourage, permit, allow, persuade, teach, force
  • after specifically these verbs: decide, expect, choose, hesitate, learn, refuse, manage

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

When to use bare infinitive (no to)
You use the bare infinitive:
  • after auxiliary verbs (hulpwerkwoorden)
  • after let, had better, would rather
  • after make (active sentences! In passive sentences you use  to + infinitive)
Watch the English or Dutch video on the next slides if you still have trouble understanding

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Slide 6 - Video

Slide 7 - Video

Unit 9: Modals of speculation/deduction
There are three modals you can use when you are not 100% certain about something (so you speculate): could - may - might.
  • may = in Dutch "misschien". There is a reasonable change that it will happen. May is rather formal and not used very often.
  • could = in Dutch "zou kunnen". There is a good chance that it will happen; perhaps 50-50%
  • might = in Dutch "heel misschien". There is a only slim chance that it will happen

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

When you are 100% sure that something will happen: must
That car must be doing over 100 kph at least!
It must be possible nowadays to find that information online.

When you are 100% sure that something will not happen: can't/couldn't
You can't be serious!
They couldn't possibly be here before lunchtime, it's a four hour drive!

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Modals in the past tense:
may have + past participle
might have + past participle
could have+ past participle
must have + past participle
can't have + past participle
couldn't have + past particple
(past participle = verb + -ed/ 3rd irregular)

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Unit 9: grammar extra
Adjectives that express opinions always come before adjectives that express descriptions. This happens only when more than 1 adjective is used: 
- the brilliant German scientist Albert Einstein.

When using more than 1 descriptive adjective,
they follow this order:

(opinion -) size - shape - age - colour - nationality - material 

- a small oval silver necklace
- the tall young Australian doctor

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Open the documents named "oefenen met gerund and infinitive", "oefenen met modals" and "oefenen met adjective and adverb"
 in the Studiewijzer and do the exercises.
You can check your own answers.

Next, go online to https://www.examenglish.com/FCE/fce_reading.html  and practice with the 4 parts of Use of English (parts 1-4). Don't forget, these parts can return on the test!

Slide 12 - Tekstslide