# 4A - Present and past speculation/deduction

Modals of deduction and probability
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
EngelsMiddelbare schoolhavo, vwoLeerjaar 3

In deze les zitten 21 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 2 videos.

Lesduur is: 20 min

## Onderdelen in deze les

Modals of deduction and probability

#### Slide 2 -Video

Modals of deduction and probability

- If you’re certain that something is true, based on evidence --> must
There must be more planets in the universe than we’re aware of.

- If you’re certain that something is not true, based on evidence --> can’t
Similar life forms to our own can’t exist in our solar system.

#### Slide 3 -Tekstslide

- If you are not sure whether something is true --> might / may / could
Life could exist elsewhere in the universe.

- To increase the possibility --> could / may / might followed by well
They might well be planning a new space programme now.

#### Slide 4 -Tekstslide

Not 100% certain
may (not) = in Dutch "misschien". There is a reasonable chance that it will happen. May is rather formal and not used very often.

could = in Dutch "zou kunnen". There is a good
chance that it will happen; perhaps 50-50%

might (not) = in Dutch "heel misschien". There is only a
slim chance that it will happen

#### Slide 5 -Tekstslide

100% certain
must - when you are 100% sure
that something will happen.

can't/couldn't - when you are
100% sure that something will
not happen

#### Slide 7 -Video

Practice!
On the next slides you're going to rewrite
sentence using the modal verbs.
Take the following steps:

step 1: Is it a present or past sentence?
present --> modal + infinitive
past --> modal + have + past participle
step 2: find the main verb
Example: rewrite using MUST
"I'm sure it's a lion"

step 1: present
(modal + infinitive)
step 2:  is (to be)

It must be a lion.

#### Slide 8 -Tekstslide

Rewrite using MUST
"I'm sure it's cold out"

#### Slide 9 -Open vraag

Rewrite using MIGHT
"It's possible it escaped from the zoo."

#### Slide 10 -Open vraag

Rewrite using COULD

"Perhaps he's very hungry by now."

#### Slide 11 -Open vraag

Rewrite using COULD

"It's possible it was somebody's pet."

#### Slide 12 -Open vraag

Rewrite using MAY

"Perhaps it grew too big."

#### Slide 13 -Open vraag

Rewrite using CAN'T

"I'm sure it isn't a lion."

#### Slide 14 -Open vraag

More examples?
Check out the rest of the video!

#### Slide 15 -Tekstslide

Your teacher: You ... hand in your homework tomorrow or you will fail.
A
can
B
have to
C
must
D
should

#### Slide 16 -Quizvraag

You ... visit your aunt in hospital.
A
must
B
should
C
have to
D
can

#### Slide 17 -Quizvraag

She isn't answering the phone. She ... be out.
A
must
B
can't
C
might

#### Slide 18 -Quizvraag

They... be Spanish, they're speaking Portuguese.
A
must
B
can't
C
might

#### Slide 19 -Quizvraag

He ... have a job interview today - he's waiting to hear from the company.
A
must
B
can't
C
might

#### Slide 20 -Quizvraag

4A
Make exercise 1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 5, 6, 7.