Relative pronouns Ch 6.1

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Welcome !

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Road map
  • BBC One - Minute World News
  • Grammar - Relative Clauses
  • Exercises on Learnbeat
  • Check & Summarise

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Relative Clauses
Betrekkelijke bijzin: provides extra information about something that has already been mentioned, for instance a person, thing, animal, place, or event. 

NL: die (bij 'de-woorden'), dat (bij 'het-woorden), wat, waar. 
ENG: who, which, that, what, where, when

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Relative Clauses
Kan bijv. verwijzen naar:
  • een zelfstandig naamwoord (a noun)
  • een voornaamwoord (a pronoun)
  • een hele zin (a main or subclause)

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Slide 5 - Link

Relative clauses
We use relative clauses to describe or give extra information about something we have already mentioned. We often use them to avoid repetition. 

We often use relative pronouns (e.g. who, where, that, which, whose) to introduce relative clauses.

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Relative clauses
Restrictive relative clauses:  you need them in the sentence for it to make sense. They give you essential information. NO COMMAS!!!

Non-restrictive relative clauses: They give extra information, which isn’t absolutely necessary. We use COMMAS to separate them from the rest of the sentence. 

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Relative clauses 
  • Link to a word previously mentioned
  • Links up two parts of the sentence

Martin played Tennis with Sophie, who was slightly injured.

relative pronoun
Noa sold her phone, which was old and damaged.
relative pronoun

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Relative Clauses
Who: verwijst terug naar een persoon
My brother Tim, who is a law student, lives in London.

Which: het antecedent is geen persoon
The old Rolls Royce, which is worth a fortune right now, is parked in the garage. 
That: kan verwijzen naar beide!

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Restrictive relative clauses
Restrictive relative clauses:  essential information
  • In the middle or at the end of a sentence
  • No commas!

He is the doctor who helped my grandmother.

This is the airport where I lost my bag.

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Relative clauses
You can leave out relative pronouns if:
  • it is a 'restrictive' relative clause'
  • the pronoun does NOT relate to the subject
  • there is a pronoun behind it

The flowers which he gave me were beautiful.

Persoonlijk: ik, jij, hij, etc.
Bezittelijk: mijn, zijn, onze, etc.
Wederkerend: me, je, zich, etc.
The flowers he gave me were beautiful.

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Non-restrictive relative clauses
Non-restrictive relative clauses:  additional information
  • In the middle or at end of a sentence
  • Starts and ends with comma
  • Do not use  'that'!!!

The Times, which is published in London, is a daily newspaper.

The Times is a daily newspaper.

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Relative clauses
Whom: is sometimes used as the object of a verb or preposition
This is George’s brother, with whom I went to school.

Whose: refers to the person that something belongs to.
He's a musician whose albums have sold millions. 

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Relative clauses
Restrictive relative clauses (no commas):
  • antecedent = person: who or that, preference for who
  • antecedent = thing: which or that, preference for that 
  • antecedent = place: where
  • antecedent = time: when 
  • antecedent = reason: why
  • no antecedent = what ('that which')

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Relative clauses
Non-Restrictive relative clauses (commas):
  • antecedent = person: who 
  • antecedent = thing: which 
  • antecedent = place: where
  • antecedent = time: when 
  • antecedent = reason: why
  • no antecedent = what ('that which')

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Relative clauses
Whose = van wie, wiens
John, whose sister lives in Groningen, is 18 years old

Whom =  die (esp. formal language)
Mij uncle Peter, whom I saw last Tuesday, is bald. 
What = als er geen antecedent is
What he says is not true ('That which')

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

Do ex. 1.3. B on Learnbeat
Workbook ex. 1 -3 p. 64-66

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

Relative clauses
Where: verwijst altijd naar een plaats
I still live in the house where I grew up in. 
I still live in the house in which I grew up.
When: verwijst naar een tijdstip
In September 1938, when Hitler had just invaded Poland, Prime Minister Chamberlain declared that there would be 'Peace in our time'. 

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Do ex. 1.3.C (4) and D on Learnbeat
Workbook ex. 4 and 5 p. 67 & 68

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

Relative pronouns
  • Who / which together with preposition
  • preposition mostly in the end.
  • preposition can also be in the beginning of sentence: formal
  • 'Who' changes to 'whom'
The officer, who Lee told his story to, was shocked.
The officer, to whom Leed told his story, was shocked.

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

Relative Pronouns
  • Who: personen
  • Which: dingen, dieren etc.
  • That: NIET bij komma's
  • Komma's bij een niet-beperkende bijwoordelijke bijzin (een zin die extra informatie geeft die niet noodzakelijk is)
  • Whose (

Slide 21 - Tekstslide

Finish 1.3.E. ex. 2 and 3
Workbook: ex. 6 and 7 on p. 69 & 70

Slide 22 - Tekstslide